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How To Make Money Investing In Muscle Cars

I have written a lot of articles on this subject, and I know if you have a bit of money to spend, you can make pretty good money on classic cars, my specialty is muscle cars, so that is what I will discuss in this article, I know them, and I know them well. twenty years of studying on the subject you learn a few things about them, the obvious thing is that if your a car freak, you can have a lot of fun making your money, it doesn’t have to be like work, I would suggest that at the first you specialize in one type of muscle car.

Choose your favorite muscle car, and learn all you can about it, buy every book that you can find, they created special versions of almost every muscle car ever built, and these are the ones that you can truly make the good money off of, they won’t be east to find, but it will be worth the hunt.

You need to make yourself an expert on the muscle car that you specialize in, yes you can expand later and begin to learn about different muscle cars, or classic cars, like I have specialized in the first generation camaro, and the second generation corvette.

Have you ever heard the term by the numbers, that is what you need to learn if you want to make money investing in muscle cars, learn the numbers, you cannot know to much about how they work, with a Chevrolet you have vin tags, casting numbers on the engine, and the transmission.

You also have a protect-o-plate if it’s still with the car, not to mention a date code, and RPO code, a rear end code, and that should about cover all of the codes, these all must match the vin tag on the car, if they all match then you can bet that you have the real thing.

The biggest mistake that people make is that they get excited, and when part of the numbers don’t match, they just blow it off because the car looks good, doing this will lose you money when you go to sell the car if you ever do, and if you keep it an an investment it won’t be worth as much.

On a Chevrolet the one number that is easy to change to you best rip off art work, is the ROP code, the pad that the RPO code sits on can be machined off and re-stamped to match anything the thief wants, but that is why the other numbers are there, it won’t match the casting number in this case.

If you find a car that the RPO code, and the casting number don’t match, please do yourself a favor, and don’t second guess the numbers, the numbers don’t lie, they are always right, and if they don’t match it should throw up a red flag the size of Texas.

This is a good place to start, if you keep in mind that you should never second guess the numbers, you’ll always do well investing in classic cars, learn the numbers like the back of your hand, know everything you can about them, and you do very well in this venture.

Exemplary Service Of Pajero Sports Car Dealers In India

Trends of cars and vehicle ownership are changing in India. The market has now shifted from the conventional mode of cars being luxury items to car’s being used for necessity.  This has also resulted in the market expanding with better varieties and key models from the many car manufacturers that wish to capture the Indian markets. Subsequently, the Indian Market now has various cars and models to choose from ensuring that the customer gets complete value for their money.

Out of the middle segment and higher segment cars, some cars that have been able to captivate the minds and preferences of the customers are complete packages with luxurious interiors and sturdy exteriors. Raging engine power coupled with excellent and leveraging interiors, the Mitsubishi Pajero Sports are one of the best cars on the road.

Why Car dealership is laden with responsibility

Mitsubishi Pajero Sport

A car dealership is a tacky condition of customer service where in the relationship with the customer does not end with the sales made. This is why to choose the right dealer for the car that is being bought is as important as the choice of the car itself. Shakti motors are best Pajero Sports Car dealer in Mumbai. With extended customer service and after sales services, the company has been able to earn repute for the various deals and service packages provided.  While a customer decides to buy the Mitsubishi Pajero Sports, here are a few reasons why Shakti Motors is one of the best car dealers in the country.

  • Shakti Motors also deal in the new models and accessories of the Mitsubishi Pajero Sports
  • Free test drives are made available at the doorstep
  • The cars bought from the best Mitsubishi Pajero Sports dealers can have extended warranties and guarantees as per the customer performance
  • Shakti motors doesn’t only deals with the sales of the Mitsubishi Pajero Sports but also handles the services and doorstep deliveries of the cars to their owners.
  • Pajero dealer also offers its valued customers attractive offers and discounts as and when applicable.

A car dealership is critical considering it is not just about the sales, but about the services that are being offered to a customer against a huge amount of money being spent that leads to the rising expectations of the customers. This is why it is essential, that the car dealer for Mitsubishi Sports Pajero is chosen with care and caution.

Beginners Guide: Car Audio Systems

The first step is to determine what your needs are. If you’re unsure, we will first look at the individual components that make up a complete system.
The Head Unit

AKA Source Unite. This is the most important part of your audio system. The decision you make here will either make or break your system, never mind you hearing.

What to look for in a head unit:

Manufacturer: Look for a well know manufacturer i.e. Sony, Alpine, Clarion, Blaupunkt, JVC etc.

Sound Re-production: Accurate sound re-production is a must, forget looks.

Warranty: Good warranty is also a must, avoid Grey-Market units.

Build Quality: Make sure its robust.

Low budget features:

Forget Fascination: Forget colorful displays, flip down panels, inbuilt equalizers, bass boost etc.

Higher budget features:

CD: If your music collection is on CD, then consider a CD head unit or one with a CD changer.

MP3 & WMA: If you have a vast music library then you may want to look for units that can read MP3 and/or WMA music formats.

VCD & DVD: Long journeys will benefit from this feature and keep the kids out of trouble too.

Amplifier: If you planning to add an amp to your car choose a head unit with RCA outputs.


This is the second most important part of your audio system. Speakers convert electronic signals into sound waves.

What to look for in speakers:

Spending: Speakers come in several types, sizes and power ratings. Be careful before spending more money then you need to.

Power: Speaker power is one of the most over-rated features in head units and speakers.

Numbers: Don’t get pulled in by numbers like 300Watts or 450Watts etc. Even the big company’s use this.

Ratings: Don’t buy speakers based upon the company’s ratings like PMPO, Peak Power, Max Power etc.

RMS: Root Mean Square ratings are equivalent of the actual power rating delivered.

Installation: This is one of the most important points of the speaker, “proper installation”. Direction, Height and Placement is key to the sound and if not installed properly can make the sound feel lifeless.

Manufacturer Locations: Usually speaker locations provided by the car manufacturer are not the best, but you can install the speakers in the provided spaces.

Speaker Types:

Coaxial: They are two (or more) speakers’ built-in the same unit. They usually consist of a mid-bass and tweeters. They are cheaper than separate component speakers and easier to install.

Component 2-Way: They consist of a mid-bass and tweeter. They are harder to install then coaxial.

Component 3-Way: They consist of a separate woofer, mid-bass or mid-range and tweeters. They are harder to install then coaxial.

Mid-Bases: Usually 5″ to 8″ speakers that are designed for low frequency sound and fill the frequency gap between the woofer and the tweeter. Because of there size they are hard to fit but do make the sound more lifelike.

Horns: These are funnel shaped speakers that are for staging, they are particularly good for vocal frequencies but are the hardest to install.

Tweeters: Usually 1″ to 3″ in size and great for high frequency sounds. They can be hard to install in some cars as there mounting is usually done around or in the dashboard.

Sub-Woofers: The largest speakers raging in size from 8″ to 24″ and sometimes bigger. They are the most important if you want to feel the beats and not just hear them. The woofer is usually found in the trunk in an enclosure but installations may vary.

Speaker Locations:

Front Speakers: Commonly located in or under the dashboard or in door panels.

Rear Speakers: Located behind the rear seats or in door panels.

Woofer: Depending on size, behind the rear seats or in the trunk.

Tweeters: Usually on the front pillars, front doors or dashboard.

Note: Try out your speaker positions before installing them so that you get the best sound.


Amps amplify or multiply the input signals from the head unit to the speakers. The Amp not only make the sound louder they also make it clearer.

What to look for:

Class: Amps are classified according to their amplification, Class-A, B, AB, and D.

Channel: They can also be classified by their channel, Monobloc 1-Channel, 2-Channel, 4-Channel etc.


They are a combination of series and parallel placed induction coils and capacitors, or either of them. They are given the job of frequency distribution among different types of speaker for distortion free sound reproduction. Inductors stop the high frequencies from passing through.

A combination of these together make a band pass which cut through a certain portion of both the high as well as the low frequencies and are rightly called band-pass crossovers.

How to Choose the Car Spare Parts Effectively?

It is quite obvious to see that your car often needs maintenance or replacement of old parts just to ensure that car is running efficiently, and all of this becomes a lot important when you have invested a good amount of money in your car.

Individuals looking for spare parts or maintenance of their machinery then the best thing to look for are mirrlees Blackstone es8 parts. These parts can be easily purchased from the locals shops or can also be purchased online. However one of the most important thing to give due consideration is its pricing and to find if this equipment is economical to use. Once you have found out the part which needs to be replaced or repaired, then the next thing to work upon is to find out in which shop such part is available and if the quality of such material is worth purchasing or investing in.

Where to Buy these Spare Parts from?

Individuals can purchase these spare parts from the options mentioned below;

• For customers in search for good quality spare parts can have a look at the dealers located nearby to their official or residential places. However the choice of such spare parts should be done after closely scrutinizing the company on their quality and benchmarks, and if they are found effective then these companies are probably the best choice to make.

• Once the local dealers have been checked upon, next place wherein one can search for spare parts is look for them online. While you are surfing online websites, there are chances you will come across various options. This makes the task much simpler for you, wherein you can compare the costs, quality, and reputation of companies competing in the market and thus make choice of the best company.

• Another favorable option to look for crankshaft grinder spares is the junk yards or car scrap areas. These places or dealers have spare parts available at their end and it would be quite easy to locate or find spare parts in such places. Another favorable thing about approaching this place is, these car spare parts are available in bulk. Herein complete and good tests of spare parts are also done, to ensure customers of the quality of goods they are purchasing.

There are various options available while we are looking for mirrlees Blackstone es8 parts as there are number of websites available online which has been made available for the customers for their convenience. Thus customers can just log on to the websites and look out for the relevant parts which are of their use and pick any of them which suits them best. This is not all, tons of variety is kept at the disposal of customers which makes them do the perfect choice and choose something which can meet their complete requirements and bring the best out of their car functioning and working.

The above mentioned options can thus be chosen for making choice of car spare parts and picking up companies and parts which can suit their requirements best.

On a roll with Dubs and tyres

The word Dub is known worldwide as wheels or rims for your car. The revolutionary concept of spinners and floaters has changed the wheel industry forever. Spinners are wheels that continue to spin even after the car has come to a complete stop. While floaters on the other hand are wheels with wheel centers that appear to float as you drive. for the best discount wheels and tire packages, when it comes to wheels online they have everything you need for your vehicle, whether it is truck wheels, truck rims, car wheels, car rims, off road wheels and off road tires, giving BBS Rims for Sale. They have a wide selection of car accessories, Eibach springs, custom grilles, car grilles, suspension lifts, lift kits, HID headlights, LED lights, K&N Filters, and much more. They also have a huge range of wheels like the Advanti racing, ATX series HD Wheels etc, a great selection from alpha bets A-Z, of these American Racing wheels are the best sellers in the market, and the ones most commonly used for a tight grip.

You can get a makeover to your car with the best BBS rims for sale in the market, including rims for truck tyres. Also differ accessories shipped to your door from dubs and tyres. You can find the best prices on wheels, tires and wheels packages, with the best discounts on wheel and tire packages on the net, through our online services. your shopping has a name that you can trust, you can have your orders shipped also keeping a track of them. The business hours are 9 to 6 but its online services are 24/7 with their best consultants at your service.

This business of wheels and tires has been running for years its presence online and in our eBay store speaks for itself. They supply free shipping for their customers in US along with it free locking lug nuts plus free mounting and balancing. They also have a phone facility where you can order your tyres and accessories through phone. They provide the benefits of air pressure with the right amount of air pressure, your tires wear longer, save fuel, enhance handling, and prevent accidents and a check on it regularly.This business of wheels and tires has been running for years its presence online and in our eBay store speaks for itself. They supply free shipping for their customers in US along with it free locking lug nuts plus free mounting and balancing. They also have a phone facility where you can order your tyres and accessories through phone. They provide the benefits of air pressure with the right amount of air pressure, your tires wear longer, save fuel, enhance handling, and prevent accidents and a check on it regularly.

Skoda Superb – Check Prices, Specs, Mileage & Review by Autoportal India

he third generation Skoda Superb is about to be launched shortly in India. As the Skoda Motors has not brought the sedan for the recently concluded Indian auto show, it can be presumed that Skoda Automobiles India Private Limited (SAIPL) has plans to launch the luxury sedan on 23rd February. The third generation model has already been launched in the international market in 2015.


Variants and prices

In the luxury sedan segment the Superb has to compete with the brands like mt5he Honda, the Volkswagen, the Audi and the Mercedes Benz. The 2nd generation Superb has three petrol and two diesel variants in India. The 2016 Superb has 5 petrol and 3 diesel variants in the international market. But the number of variants will be less in India with at least one petrol variant having automatic transmission.

Price comparison

The vehicle is expected to be priced Rupees 22 to 28 lakh. The Honda Accord 2016 is expected to be priced Rupees 24 to 26 lakh. The Volkswagen Passat 2016 is expected to be in the price range of Rupees 20 to 25 lakh. The German rivals the Audi A3 is priced Rupees 24.56 to 44.75 lakh and the Mercedes Benz GLA Rupees 31.9 to 72 lakh.


The new Superb is longer and wider and is built on the MQB platform. The 4861 mm long car has a wheel base of 2841 mm. The shoulder space at the front is increased by 39 mm and the leg room at the rear is 157 mm. The boot size is 625 litres. The external features include a new bumper, a revised butterfly grille, a larger hood, a lower roof line, Bi-Xenon headlights with DRLs on top variants, coupe-like windows and LED tail lights. The luxurious and comfortable cabin will have features like a dual-zone AC, an integrated music system with touch screen display and CD system, leather seats, Bluetooth connectivity and steering mounted controls. Safety features include 8 airbags, ABS and EBD, a tilt/telescopic steering column, a cruise control and rear parking sensors.

Decent mileages

The 2016 Superb will be powered by a 1798 cc, 158 bhp, and 250 NM torque petrol engine giving a mileage of 13.7 kmpl or a1968cc, 138 bhp, and 320 NM torque diesel engine with a mileage of 17.2 kmpl. The car will accelerate from 0 to 100 kmph in 6.5 seconds with a top speed of 250 kmph. The transmission will be 5-speed manual or 7-speed automatic.

Our views

The flagship vehicle of the Skoda brand is an affordable luxury sedan. The spacious cabins, smooth steering and suspensions with torsion stabilisers make the ride comfortable. The 2016 model is going to be a popular car in India.


More about Hyundai Xcent in India visit: and also check out Bajaj V in India visit:

Search New Cars Also Find Used Cars On Advanced Online Car Search Engines

Cannot make up your mind whether you should buy a new or used vehicle? You’re not alone. For people with no budget restrictions, it’s easy. They can afford to go to the showroom of their choice and buy a brand new vehicle of their choice. Interestingly, it’s just as easy for those who have severely restricted budgets. For them, there is no other option but to buy a used vehicle., if you fall in between the two options, you could find yourself struggling to make a decision that works out best for you. You have just about enough funds to be able to afford to buy a brand new car but the problem arises when you factor in the maintenance. If you put in all of your money to purchase a brand new vehicle, will you have enough to maintain it or will you find yourself struggling with the maintenance costs? On the other hand, if you settle for a cheaper second hand vehicle, will you end up paying more for the maintenance in the end?

CarZag is an advanced car search engine that allows you to search new cars and also find used cars. Some time spent on their site browsing through the options available both in the new as well as the used car categories will help you make an informed decision.

How an online car search engine works

Most sites will request you to first register with their site so that they have your details on record. Registration is free.

Once you’ve registered you then choose whether you are looking to buy or sell a vehicle. When you choose buy, you will again get another option asking whether you want to search new cars or find used cars and also the type of car you are looking for. Are you looking for a large family car or a two seater sports car? Is there a particular make of car that you have a preference for or are you open to checking out different makes and models so you can compare them?

There are no restrictions to the number of searches you can do so feel free to do a search first for new cars that are available and see what are the prices of the different makes and models and what are the additional features that each of them offer. This will give you a good idea of the price range that you would have to pay should you decide to buy a brand new vehicle.

Now do another search for used cars and again take a look at the different makes and models available and the prices of these used vehicles. This will give you a good idea of what car owners are asking for their used vehicles.

These two searches will help you get a better picture of how much you would pay for a vehicle, whether new or used. You may be pleasantly surprised to find that you could actually afford to buy a brand new car at a price that will not wipe out all of your savings. Another surprise could be the ability to find used cars that are reasonably priced and in excellent condition too! So go ahead and spend some time doing a comparative search. You may be surprised at what you find!

An Introduction on the Online Mobile Repairing Part Shops in India

Communication is one of the most important modes to connect with one another in this world. It plays an unavoidable role in our life. Communications are generally written or verbal. There are various devices used for communication like computer, mobile phone, laptops, internet based modes, and more. Among them, the most commonly used is the mobile phone. Any user can with very ease search for online mobile repairing shop and buy touch glass, LCD touch screen & other consumer products at comparative rates.

Today, there is no need to struggle going to any phone shop rather an user can buy mobile repairing spare parts and can also get his/her cell phone repaired sitting at your convenient place using the online mode. People today prefer using Smartphone to enjoy multiple features and use various applications simultaneously.

Because, of the more use of a Smartphone, the risk of different parts getting damaged is always higher. These phones being bigger in size needs careful handling and care. Due to one or the other reason, one or more than one spare part incur problem resulting into repair or replacement. The original spare parts are not easily available in the physical markets and are costly. In these conditions, the online mobile repairing part shops prove to be a very useful and beneficial source.

A customer can choose from the great range of LCD Display, LCD Touch, Housing panel, batteries, camera, side crome, flex & jacks, Touch glasses, etc. and place online orders at the online shopping store. You can purchase and save good discounts on your orders. Online shopping stores like shopperclue and others are specialized in the mobile spare parts. You can buy branded and original mobile repairing parts for longer life of your favourite phone.

You can save upto 75% on MRP shopping at the stores online and also gain irresistible deals, and offers. Now, there is no need stay worried if your phone incurs problem of any type, just explore online and order the products of your need at economical price.

Enjoy more and more applications and features in your Smartphone. You can also purchase original accessories like Tempered glass, Power bank, screen guards, back covers, memory cards, charger, headphone, earphones, and other useful items and goods for daily or occasional use.

In the present days a customer has the facility to purchase from anyplace and any part of India. A phone user can buy the spare parts for any model of mobile and stay connected with family & contacts without any interruption and worry. Presently, you can find number of users engaged in mobile phone LCD Touch screen shopping from different mobile shops in India.

Now, for any kind of mobile spare parts or phone accessories, explore online platforms including shopperclue and others. You can order without any type of worry and enjoy free delivery along with cash on delivery in India!

List of Most Iconic and Amazing Lamborghini Models

Lamborghinis are world renown for their uniquely exotic, high performance, supercars that reflect status and luxury. The pure power and speed that every driver feels when behind the wheel of a Lamborghini is tremendous. It gives them an opportunity to explore car’s acceleration, performance through turns in a safe way.

List of Top Ten Most Expensive Sports Cars in the World EverTill date Lamborghini has introduced many incredible models, from which we are going to list down some:

Lamborghini Miura:

This model of Lamborghini is believed to have redefined concept of sports car. Miura was once considered to be a powerful beast with a central V12 engine. Ability to reach a top speed of 280 kilometers per hour, Miura was the fastest car of its time. It is believed that the original version of this stunning sports car was produced during 1966 and 1969. This model underwent some further development to become Miura S and Miura SV, which flaunted separate gearbox and engine lubrication systems.  The existing Miuras that are being restored are valued over a million dollars in top condition.

Countach LP 400:
Lamborghini Countach LP 400 Parascopica had a truly iconic look with a four liter V12 engine mounted lengthwise that has an ability to reach a top speed of 309 kilometers per hour. During the period of 1974 and 1978 a total of 151 units of Lamborghini LP400 Parascopica Countach were produced.

Produced during 1990 and 2001, Lamborghini Diablo was a wide sports car that sported a futuristic look with computer controlled multi-point fuel injection and a redeveloped V12 engine. There was a roadster option available in 1996 model year, which really added a special flare to the Lamborghini line.  It was the first Lamborghini capable of attaining a top speed in excess of 200 miles per hour (320 km/h). The VT was introduced in 1993, with All Wheel Drive feature. The SE30 was a special edition for Lamborghini’s 30th Anniversary. In 1998 the engine power raised to 530 HP by adding the variable valve timing system. Top speed specification was raised to 335 km/h (208 mph).

Five models of Murcielago was introduce during 2001 to 2010, from which were most impressive in style, design and performance. All aspects of interior and exterior designs as well as the engine performance are specially crafted for different Murcielago models to meet all requirement of the driver. Murciélago Roadster, Murcielago LP 640 Coupe, Murcielago LP640 Roadster, Murciélago LP670-4 Super Veloce and Murciélago LP 650 Roadster were the five most inspiring Lamborghini models.  Top speeds were similar to the Diablo, however the LP670-4 SV version has a top speed of 342 km (213 mi).

Produced between 2004 and 2013, Lamborghini Gallardo has eight gorgeous versions in its ancestry. All models featured V10 engines. Gallardo LP 550-2, LP 560-4, LP 570-4 Superleggera Edizione Technica, LP 570-4 Spyder and Special Series LP 550.2 Trofeo are just some of the versions of Lamborghini Gallardo.

Lamborghini Aventador was introduced in 2011 as a gorgeous super car with four versions, where each model highlighted different features. Aventador LP 700-4 and LP 750-4 Super Veloce were known for fine-tuned exhaust systems and dynamic steering.

Introduced in 2014 Lamborghini Huracan boasts of stunning design and elegant craftsmanship that offers a uniquely aggressive look. The LP 580-2 model of Huracan delivers a fun and exhilarating driving experience as it sports V10 90 IDS and 40 valve engine.

Sesto Elemento:
This model highlights Lamborghini’s outstanding performance in carbon fiber tech, which was produced in 2011. Sesto Elemento is a super car that deals in art and power with V10 engine and permanent all wheel drive.

Every Lamborghini model is an attention grabber, which attracts car lovers to own or ride in a Lamborghini model at least onece. One should always remember that every Lamborghini model will require an maintenance which can be done with proper techniques outlined in a Lamborghini parts manual and diagnostic systems. This will assure you in using the correct tool for the job to keep your Lamborghini  in top running condition.

Piolanti: Everything You Need for Concrete Industry and Much More

Piolanti S.r.l is an Italian company, headquartered in Forlì – Emilia Romagna, which is forcing as a leader in concrete, earth-moving machines and caves field.

In fact, its services are the sale of vehicles and machinery for the building industry, the After-Sales Service and the supply of spare parts for all types of construction machinery.

Concrete is a real passion and point of strength for the company which offers to customers a full service, useful for all stages of processing.

In the well-stocked Piolanti online catalogue, we can find products such as:

  • Cement mixers, both mounted on vehicles, both on driving or self-propelled, new and used
  • Complete concrete mixing plants
  • Concrete pumps of various brands
  • Vehicles for the transport of building materials
  • Spare parts and accessories for all types of construction machines

As regards the last point (SPARE PARTS), we can say that Piolanti has really overcome. Its products include:

  • Spare parts for truck mixers, including drums, rollers, water pumps, hopper and chutes, water meters
  • Spare parts for concrete pumps, rubber hoses and hardened steel (to improve efficiency), couplings, seals, weld-on rings, pistons, water pumps, hydraulic cylinders and remote radio control systems
  • Spare parts and accessories for batching plants, valves, mixers, silos and screw conveyors
  • Spare parts for earth moving machines (excavators, dozers, loaders and similar), with bucket and teeth, rollers, reduction gear boxes and belt scrapers
  • Spare parts for trucks and vehicles for the implementation, new and used

An aspect not to underestimate is the already mentioned After Sales Service. Piolanti S.r.l. does not abandon its customers once purchased, but continues to follow and guide them in their choices. As you can read on the website: “Sow today to move forward together”.

Generally, this company has set goals of quality, timeliness and competence in the service that offers to all its customers. All surpassing, with passion and commitment, the difficulties encountered in the course of its long history (including geographical distances: today it is active in 80 countries around the world).

Piolanti Srl aim is to offer a complete, diversified and specialized service, characterized by attention to every detail and by the desire not to stop in front of the first difficulties. All this working with the same spirit and the same passion that have been its trademarks since the beginning.

The Ultimate Car Audio System: The Pioneer AVH-3200BT

With a sleek sheen this car audio system really does look the part in your brand new car. Not only that, but it literally has everything you might ever need in your car. It’s a hands free kit, CD player, I-pod and IPhone compatible – as well as a DVD player. It’s the ultimate system that will let you keep in touch and entertained

Keep Connected

With a parrot Bluetooth module integrated into the Pioneer AVH-3200BT, you can make those much needed phone calls wirelessly. An added bonus is that the system has high quality sound, allowing you to hear the person at the other end clearly. Not only that, but the excellent quality microphone allows you to reply to the other person just as clearly. Say adieu to phone calls with cracking or distorted sounds with this car audio system.

But the real cherry on the top with this system is the fact that you can have up to a 1000 saved names and numbers under 5 different users, which is especially useful when the whole family use it! The AVH-3200BT combines the convenience needed for a busy professional with entertainment in order to get the work-life balance a little more balanced.

Be Entertained

Enjoy practically all of your music and DVD collection on the AVH-3200BT through a variety of different mediums.  It can play:

-DVD’s including DVD-R/-RW discs in VR Mode,

-CD’s including CD-R/-RW as well as Video CD,

-Mp3, wma, wav and AAC files from a CD, an USB or SD card,

-DivX film and JPEG files from CD’s, DVD’s, USB and SD card,



-USB storage device through the front input and,

-AV source’s such as Mp3 players or games consoles through the Aux-in.

The Pioneer AVH-3200BT is the elite machine for in-car entertainment as it combines every possible source of entertainment within one single unit. But what makes this device the crème de la crème is that it uses the new and funky Dual Zone technology which allows the passengers at the front to listen to music, whilst the back passengers can watch their favourite DVD. It is the ultimate entertainment package simply because it can entertain everyone in the car!

Seek Quality

With a touch screen, this device is easy to navigate through without too much trouble. Moreover, you can even personalize you background, menu and even illuminate buttons accordingly to your tastes.

The Pioneer AVH-3200BT also incorporates an 8 band equalizer, allowing you to match up the sound of your system with the sounds of your car, which in turns lessens distortion and any unwanted sounds.

The Pioneer AVH-3200BT is a high quality system that it is at the top of the in-car entertainment field. It combines everything you could ask for in an entertainment package for the busy professional, the commuter and the whole family. It is a perfect system for those who need a full on entertainment package in their car, but also need convenience.

However, it may not be suitable for everyone’s needs so if you don’t want the full entertainment package or to be disturbed by the phone in the car, opt for a much simpler system.

Five of the top car brands in Germany

People can be very particular about the cars they drive; some people choose to buy a car only after careful consideration of all the makes and models available. Some people may only choose cars from certain manufacturers because of prior experience or perhaps upon recommendation from other. people choose their cars based on where they came from, a lot of people choose German cars because of this reason based on the track record of German cars being powerful and stylish. Famous brands such as BMW and Audi pride themselves on stylish cars that perform well as either executive cars or powerful sports cars depending on the model. Below are five of the best German car brands that people like to choose:

BMW is a very successful German car brand and has cars in almost every category from the sporting sedan – the M5, to a large 4×4 – the X5; they even have a fun sports car in the Mini Cooper. BMW has cars in the racing world also with touring cars as well as Formula 1. BMW cars are powerful, elegant and comfortable all at once making it a very popular brand.

Whilst BMW is often thought of as a more “clinical”, industrial brand Mercedes-Benz is more of a luxury vehicle. Mercedes again has cars in the racing world as well as producing street cars that could give racing cars a run for their money for example the McLaren SLR. The Mercedes SL and CL series are both popular with people looking for a smaller, luxury, executive car.


Audi have recently been making more and more impressive car models aimed at the executive and sporting realm like the Mercedes. Their increasing range of smaller sporty models like the TT and the R8 has also enabled them to compete with BMW’s Z4 and other small sports cars. Audi cars have a lot of innovations such as the LED strip lighting that has become as iconic as the four rings on the Audi badge.

Volkswagen (VW)
Volkswagen are well known for their rallying car, the Golf, which these days is considered a leading medium sized car, able to compete with many sports car offerings from other brands. The VW Beetle is another iconic car that has been popular during its many iterations from the 60s to present day.

Porsche are well known for making some of the best supercars such as the 911 and Cayenne – which is a mix of the traditional Porsche sports car with a 4×4. The shape and design of the Porsche is instantly recognisable and has its fair share of fans.

If you’re looking for a quality used German car then used car finance or another form of car credit could enable you to buy the car you want at a price that suits your circumstances.

Benefits of Using Genuine Auto Accessories and Spare Parts

In this modern age, cars or vehicles are imperative to mankind. We use them for all sorts of our daily chores and therefore they are of great use to us. What is important is that they are very delicate items as their parts and accessories are quite essential to the entire car and its performance. Hence, it is imperative that one buys them from a trusted source. accessories can be manufactured by many and some of them may be fraudulent pieces as well. A car cannot use such as they may damage other components of it. Though the former may be a bit costlier than other spurious ones but their longevity is an aspect to consider. Let us explore further the countless benefits of using genuine car accessories.

The Plentiful Advantages:

There are many benefits that a person can get from using car accessories which are authentic and manufactured by the parent company. Here are a few benefits.

–    Genuine auto accessories have great benefits for the people who drive cars. It is important to comprehend the fact that the car or vehicle you drive is in its topmost condition. Using genuine parts makes sure that the car gets parts which are compatible with the other parts or components of the car.

–    It is impervious on the part of the vehicle’s user to observe the fact that the performance of the car or vehicle increases when genuine parts are used in the car. The quality of the accessories is such that you can use them in a smart and sophisticated car which belongs to the present generation of vehicles.

–    When genuine parts of the cars such as the brake pads are used, we tend to notice that there is an increase in the aspect of longevity of the car or the requisite vehicle. Car parts which belong to other brands do not work well with the other original parts fitted inside of the cars, thus it causes a lot of problems.

–    Using an appropriate car or vehicle accessories makes sure that the beauty of the vehicle gets a little more enhanced. There is no dearth of options in this regard and thus visual features of the vehicle are accentuated this way.

The price or cost of car accessories such as the brake pads is a very important consideration that tends to take precedence in cognizance in the mind of the people who procure them. The bold decision to buy another brand or items can cost you a lot. There are times wherein you might face a drought of sorts of necessary car accessories but there are other options as well. There are companies such as Australian Automotive Parts to provide you with a plethora of options of car accessories.

Tires and Road Safety

The Significance of Tires

Why are tires so important? Well, look at your car and tell me, which part of it touches the tarmac? Right, just the tires. It’s the tires that grip the road and this grip allows us to accelerate, slow down, turn sideways, dampen bumps, etc. Many people look after their brakes, but in action it’s not the brakes that stop the car (just like it’s not the steering that turns the car), it’s the tires. Go improve your braking system: Fit a bigger master cylinder, sturdier pipes, bigger rotors, discs and more grippy pads. How much feet of stopping distance will you earn? Nothing! Why? Because your tires stop the car and they can only apply so much of a stopping force. Put better tires on the car, and watch the stopping distance shorten by dozens of precents!

So, driving without good tires is much like driving without good brakes. Would you drive without good brakes? No, right? Than don’t drive with faulty or badly inflated tires! Tires are also quite cheap (in spite of a certain increase of costs due to the latest oil crysis) relative to their contribution to both performance and safety, so there’s no room for compromise. To have a better understanding, take two sheets of paper, and push them under both sides of the tires, front and back, untill they meet resistance that stops you from pushing them further. Look at the gap that is left between the two sheets: This is the whole size of the tires’ contact patch that actually touches the ground, and don’t be surprised if it’s no bigger than your shoe. The fate of your life sits on four size-9 shoes!

Estimations in Western states consider about 12% of the collisions, mostly harsh ones. This does not include collisions where tires had a significant contribution where people that stopped after their tires broke down, had been run down on the roadside, and in situations where a lost of control (categorized as sliding, swerving, lost of control or speeding accidents) would have been prevented by better tires, and in situations where good and carefully inflated tires would have stopped the car earlier before an obstacle or reduce the contact speed to a minimum.

History of Tires

The invention of Pneumatic tires is attributed to one Robert William Thomson, but they were only applied in action by John Dunlp on bicycles in 1986. The Tire became removable not five years later, and tubless tires were introduced in 1903; five years later tires became treaded and in 1910 they turned into the black round tires we know today. Of course the tire industry has made a great progress in constant development of new technologies like regroovable truck tires, recycled tires (which are still not very efficient in terms of road grip) and other developments. A new tire is ten times as durable as those that were used thirty years past, although this rigidity made the tires less resistent to aging which is caused by the atmosphere.

The modern tire industy is also a succesfull economy. It is the main buyer of rubber, which is being purchased at Malaysia, Indonesia and even in parts of Africa (after world war two), where woods of ‘Haveae’ trees were planted. These trees, once matured, are bleeded by a spiral cut that protrudes their outside layer, causing them to bleed their elastic sap into bowls. By heating it with a mixture of acids it turns into rubber of various qualities.

Synthetic rubber (made of crude oil, charcolan and Acetylene) has turned more and more popular, especially in light cars, first as an economic move of the great tire and rubber buyers of America and Europe, which sought to reduce their dependency on the far-eastern countries (along with growing heavae trees in the british colonies of west Africa). Today, both the synthetic and natural rubber are made in the far east. Modern tire industries include over 100 manufacturers and one billion tires sold per year, with over 20 billion dollars made annually. Be worn, though, that the amount of cheap and low-quality tires is about equall to that of good tires.

Tire manufacturing

Tire factories are a highly occupied industy, with many professional secrets. The development of a certain tire brand, even a simple road tire, costs hundreds of thousands and millions of dollars. The industy is based on far-eastern rubber, natural and synthetic, which is being sewn into layers. The grey color of the rubber is turned black by use of soot which increases the tires’ radiation and heat resistance in a low cost, and by applying many chemical agents, such as anti-oxidants and anti-ozonenats. These “Plies” are than extruded with the other plies of polyester and steel. The tire is than sulphated and packed with sylicon before being shifted to the market.

Old tires were made in a diagonal shape: One ply was set diagonally relative to the next. These “bias-ply” tires had many disadvatages: They worked as one unit in dampening road bumps and dispersing heat. They were very vulnrable to under-inflation, heat buildup at high speeds (at 60mph, an average road tires rotates almost 1000 times per minute), and to punctures: The tires had in internal tube with air, which, once punctured, would allow the air to leak quickely from the point of connection between the tire and rim.

Modern tires are Radial: They have a thin sidewall which is seperated from the thicker tread. The tires are also steel-belted (for structural rigidity) and “Tubeless” which means that the air is being fed directly into the tire. This technology reduces the speed in which air is bled during a puncture. Fitting a tube into such a tire is dangerous.

Tires are divided into groups:

1. Standard Road Tires: Including high-performance tires (marked as such).

2. All-Season Tires: Marked by M/S for “Mud and Snow.” These tires give a good compromise between dry road grip and grip on thin, loose snow or mud in the winter.

3. All-Terrain Tires: General purpose off-road tires, including a sub-division for sand-dune tires

4. Mud-Terrain Tires: Aggressive off-road tires for driving in mud.

5. Snow tires: Used for snowy and icy conditions.

6. Ice Tires: Studded tires for hard ice.

7. DOT-Racing Tires: Racing tires (soft rubber compound and shallow tread) which are street legal.

8. Racing Slicks: Racing-purpose tires used in professional leagues, with no tread or with a shallow tread (semi-slick).

9. All-steel tires: Used in heavy vehicles like trucks.

10. Bike tires: including road tires, performance tires, terrain tires, etc.

Every category includes various brands and qualities. For the average road driver, the main criteria is to purcahse a tire from a known brand. Unknown tire manufacturers (Like the “Ling-Long” tires that were used in an experiment in Britian) usually make tires that are highly ungrippy and in a serious risk of blowout. The quality of the tire is just as crucial (if not more) than the wear, age or inflation of the tire. New but low-quality tires can be more dangerous than old tires from a good quality.

Tires are rated in what is called a QUTG rating. These specify the tires’ temperature, traction and treadwear ratings, as tested by the US Department Of Transporation (DOT) at the St. Angelo test track at Texas.Temperature specifies the tire’s ability to disperse heat and cope with high temperatures (road tires can reach an internal temperature of 86 degrees celsius!). Most tires have an A rating. B-rated tires can be a satisfactory to people who don’t make long drives on highways or with load. C-rated tires should be avoided. These tires run at 130km/h for 30 minutes before being demolished, while A-rated tires would sustain a speed above 200 km/h!

The traction rating is decieving. It does not imply the tire’s grip levels. It indicates how well it stops on a damp road. It effectivelly illustrates the ability of the tire to drain water and grip a wet road. An AA-rated tire can be worst, on the dry, than some B-rated tires. Still, it’s advised not to go below B. In countries with wet weather, it’s preferable to go for A. The AA rating is new and does not nessecarily indicate a higher quality relative to an A-rated tire.

The Treadwear rating is very important, as it indicates how soft the tread’s rubber is. Softer rubber grips the road better, but wears sooner. Don’t go for below 300. If you don’t drive very much (less than 30,000km per year, as a rule of thumb), go for tires with a relativelly low treadwear, for extra grip. The theory is that at a rating of 100 (The DOT “Standard”, just above DOT-approved racing tires) the tire should sustain 30,000 miles of driving, but this refers to smooth highway driving in ambinet temperatures and not over long durations of time. In practice, the ability to dictate tire tread life based on this data is unrealistic.

An average road tire of about 11kg (with a maximal sway of 0.5%) will be composed like this: 3kg of seven to eight natural rubber compounds, and another 3kg of five synthetic rubber compound; 2.5kg of black carbon; one half of a kilo of steel, and another half kilo for the tire’s heel, and a similar weight for Synthetic fabrics (Rion, Polyester, etc…). 1.5kg of around 40 types (!) of resins, adhesives, pigments, anti-ozonants, anti-oxidants, softeners, Cobalt and other chemicals.

The tire is built over a period of time that usually takes over ten minutes (but in big, automized factories can take as little as three minutes!) and much longer for big tires and racing tires (which are made using special machinary and a lot of manual work). The process begins with mixing the hot rubber with carbon black (a cheap anti-radiant and heat-ressistant substance) and the other chemicals mentioned above, which are than cut into long “mats” of 80 centimeters. The mats are than cut and extruded to create a single tread, sidewall or innerliner. They are than checked so that they are just at the right size and weight. Simultanously, the textiles that are designated to be used in that tire are rubberized by putting them into a caulderon of hot rubber. The fybers are organised by code so that they can be used for the right tire.

The internal layers are now fitted unto a drum (in a radial tire, two drums) to form the rough shape of a tire. This “raw” tire is not put into a vulcanization chamber where it is being heated with sulphur at a temperature of 85 to 150 degrees celsius, for a duration that depends mainly on the depth of the rubber layer, where each milimeter needs about seven minutes of vulcanization. This also frees trapped air between the layers, and the airosion of that trapped air forms the little “studs” on the face of the tire. Big truck tires can be vulcanized for five hours!

Physics behind Tires

The tires contacts the road via a small contact patch which is divided into the small rubber fybers that make up the tire. As the tire is rotated, a given rubber fyber is loaded with the car’s weight as it comes against the road surface. The downforce generated by the car’s mass multiplied the force of gravity (the perpendicular euclidian vector of constant downward acceleration of 9.8m/s) creates an equall reaction known as the “normal force” (N) which, multiplied by the coefficient of friction of both the fyber and the tarmac, creates a gripping force (adhesion) which is professionaly known as static friction. Therefore, Fs=Nμ=μmg.

The reason is simple: The weight (vertical loading) deforms the tread element so that it is crammed into the small undulations of the abrasive road surface. However, the equation does not create a constant graph. The rubber has limitations that, if exceeded, would make it rupture and slide. When the rubber elastic properties are being fully untilized or under-exploited, Tmas>F, the result is for the tire to grip the road surface. If Tmax<F than the tire would slide and start to interact with the road with kinetic friction.

Heat is another important factor: When the fyber heats up, it will become softer and the coefficient of friction would increase. However, beyond a certain temperature, it would melt down and the tire will roll over a layer of molten rubber rather than on tarmac, reducing the grip levels. When the road is hot, it also makes the loose tar and the greasy materials (semi-burnt fuel, dripped oil, greasy car dirt, dust and sand, tire rubber residue) defuse towards the surface and reduce grip. Most people believe that the significance of tires is increased in the winter, where in action the tire is equally important over the whole year.

When we add forces of acceleration in any direction, we force the tire tread elements to distort in another direction too. The tire itself will begin to roll faster or slower than the car and this will distort the contact patch forward or back accordingly and create forces of acceleration or deceleration (negative acceleration). The formula dictates that the amount of relative slippage (s) by precent at this time would be S=100(1-[rw/V]), where R is the tire’s radius and W is the tire’s velocity, while V is the car’s velocity. Through empiric research, it is known that tires perform best (on tarmac) when the slippage is about 30% or slightly lower. Beyond that point the performance drops suddenly.

When a side force is introduced, the tire rubber deforms sideways so that the tread keeps on pointing forward while the wheel itself is turned aside. The rubber eventually turns, but always in a smaller angle than the wheel. This slip angle gives us a series of phenomenons that determind our cornering performance and safety: The lateral force (Fy) created by the lateral distortion (Pneumatic trail) of the slip angle is greatest in the rear-inside corner, creating torque that resists the turning of the wheel. This is known as Aligning Torque (Mz) and it is the origin of steering feel and the thing that makes the steering wheel return to straight if you let go of it.

The tire’s slip angle also limits the car’s critical cornering speed. In theory, the maximum safe cornering speed will be defined by calculating the equation mv²/r = mgμ (which adds up to v=√g μr). However, looking at this equaton by itself might be misleading, since it might give the false assumption that the parameters of friction and cornering radius are constant where in fact they are not. When you increase the slip angle you decrease the cornering radius. The reason is that the cornering radius is defined as the radian between the the center of the corner and the car’s center of gravity. While the weight transfer puts the center of gravity away from the center of the corner, this center (defined as the meeting of the perpendiculars of the four wheels) is moved inside, making the center of the corner smaller and the radius — tighter, reducing the speed in which the corner can be safely negotiated.

Tire wear and Aging

Tires and roads polish each other. As a result, the tire gets worn. As they wear out, the tread depth is reduced and the tire’s ability to drain water on a wet road is reduced. The legal limit in most countries is 1.6mm, usually ellapsed as a safer 2mm. Most tires also have six to nine tread wear indicator bars that become levels with the face of the tread when it has worn to this level. The indicators are lined up with the shoulder indicator, which is marked by a triangle or by numbers.

In practice a tire with 3mm or less (and 4mm in countries with a hard winter) is dangerous and should be replaced. In 60mph, with 2mm of water, each tire drains one gallon of water per second. Reduce the tread depth (14mm) to 3mm and the tire will fail and give you an overall grip level like driving on snow!

The tread does not increase grip on the dry. A slick tire is more grippy because it places more rubber against the pavement. However, when a treaded tire gets worn, it means that the soft layer of rubber is shaved and the stiffer layers of rubber (used for structural rigidity) are exposed. The tread also helps to disperse heat, so bald tires are bad. However, it’s important to understand that modern tires don’t wear out so quickely, and they will have to be replaced long before the tread gets worn, because of other kinds of wear.

The first kind of wear is a result of “Heat Cycles,” where the tire heats up and cools down under changes of weather or while driving. The rubber expands and contracts, untill it looses some of it’s elastic nature and becomes dry and sometimes even visually cracky. Also, the different layers of rubber, and the polyster and steel, all expand at a different rate, so the layers end up seperated.

Under driving, serious wear will occur at between 50 to 80,000km, depending on how hot the weather is, how agressive the driving style, how much driving is done in highways or with heavy loads, and how carefully are the tires inflated and periodically rotated. The common standard is 70,000km — beyond this point, the tire loses about 50% of it’s abilities! However, many people don’t drive so much, and their tires have to be replaced due to aging.

The tires suffer from the changes of weather from night to day and over the year, they suffer from sun radiation (mainly UVB) and effects of Oxygen, moisture and salt in the air. The effect of aging is acute, even if no visible signs of it are seen on the tire. Having said that, this kind of wear can often be seen as cracks in the edges of the tread. Tires that remain unmoved will in fact deteriorate more notably that tires which are driven at some rate or another. A slight heat and hystersis created by using the tires, will create chemical reactions which can help increase aging-ressistance abilities.

Also, tires that remain mounted on a car which is standing still for a long period of tire, will form a “flat spot” because the weight of the car will sit permenantly on one point of rubber. In this case it’s advised to inflate the tires to just below their full inflation rate. Even stacked tires can exhibit wear when they are placed one over the other. A standing tire often attracks insects too.

The tire should be replaced within a time spawn of three to four years. Older standards of six years relate only to the tire’s strutcutral well-being. I.e. After six years the tire at risk of failing, but modern tires don’t fail all that much. It far more critical to relate to the tire’s ability to produce grip and to stop you when you need to stop in a hurry, at which case three years are more than enough. Even after two years there is a notable difference of 15 to 20%!

Three years is a good standard for countries with a hot weather in the summer. It’s possible for the tire to last a few extra months if it’s regularly parked in the shade. In cold contries, it’s possible to keep tires for four years, and towards five years if carefully parked in the shade. Aging is the reason why I recommended for driver with a low annual milleage to choose soft tires, because they would have to replace those tires due to aging, and not the wear at the tread.

The age of the tire is the only data which is encrypted “into” the sidewall, within a round frame. It is seen as four figures, standing for a week in the year: “2011” stands for a tire made in the 20th week of 2011. “5208” — a tire from the 52nd (last) week of 2008. This tire should have been replaced by now. Old tires from the 90s, have three figures with an additional mark of a greek “delta”. “129^” — the 12th week of ’99.

The mechanism of Tire Aging

Various elements cause tires to age:

1. Sunlight: The effect of the photons and the UV-B radiation cause dryness and lost of the elastic properties of the rubber over the outside sidewall. The effects are greatly reduced (but not eliminated) by parking in the shade and by using different kinds of materials on the tires’ sidewalls.

2. Oxygen and Ozone: Ozone is a heavy Isotope of oxygen which appears around electric circuits and in tropical areas. The effect of oxygen always exists and it also exists inside the tire.

3. Temperature changes: The constant changes of temperatures while driving, during the movment relative to the sun,  over the day and during the whole year, make the tire heat up and cool down (“heat cycle”). The heating rubber expands and contracts again when it cools down. The problem is that eventually some of the elastic qualities are lost during this repititive process.

Another problem is that the tire is made of several rubber compounds, as well as a series of internal layers of steel, hard rubber, polyester and other substances. The result is that each layer expands at a different rate and they end up seperating. Another reason is airosion and lost of the anti-oxidants, anti-ozonants, anti-radiants and carbon black inside the tire. The front wheels are also effected by the engine’s heat on the inside shoulder.

4. Strain: The flex of the rolling tire makes the rubber, as it dries, to crack. Wear and abrasion occur on the outside, lateral and downward load deepen the cracks and the contact with objects on the road also effects the tire.

5. Moist and wetness also cause swelling of the rubber, lost of elastic properties and deepens the cracks. Salt in the air around the sea also causes this effect. This effect is all around the tire, including on the inside.

6. Pollutants: Pollutants in the air, including carbon monoxide, fuel drops and dust contac the tire and destroy it’s molecules, making the rubber soft. Dust and such dirt enter the existing aging/weather cracks and effect the tire ever more dangerously. With stored or unmoved tires, the dirt often hosts insectoids that make the wear more grave.

This also relates to a known problem of summer driving: Many people percieve tires as being important in the wet season. In fact, most road hazards are presented to us during the summer: Hot weather and heavy traffic wear down the tarmac agregates to reduce grip, tires gets far more worn and aged due to heat and milleage, and the road surface fills up with pollutants like loose tar, dirt and sand, dropped oils from cracky gaskets and exhausts, semi-burnt petrol, greasy car dirt and other chemical agents that create glare (looks like water on the road up ahead), deterioates tires but also reduces grip.

When the road surface is hot, the tire achieves working temperature faster, but simultanously this kind of grease gets diffused and the road holding is reduced overall, especially where there is even slight presence of moist or water, like during a summer rainfall, morning mist or nightly dew, or a misfire from urban water sprinklers. The heat also makes the rubber melt under sudden high-speed braking which, along with typically more loaded cars, higher speeds and reduced tire pressure (as the air defuses out of the tire faster as well), as well as reduced aerodynamic drag, make stopping distances larger than in the wet. The tires are also more prone to fail in this hot weather, or even to peel off of the rim in extreme conditions. Conclusion: Tires are equally important over the whole length of the year!

Tire Shine

Many materials supposed to make tires shine don’t do the job quite right. Many of them are oil-based and might cause the tires to deteriorate, but some of them can be helpful. If you want, you can make a cheap, home-made liquid that can be used at least on the tire’s outside sidewall once every three weeks, to reduce weather cracking:

Mix hot water with some fresh lemon juice, a bit of vinegar, sylicon from some kind of gel or blam and a bit of olive oil. A bucket of water with two spoons of juice, two spoons of vinager and one spoon of olive oil, a bit of sun screen and 1/4 cup of said sylicon — clean the tire and than rubb this mixture onto the outer sidewalls and maybe inside the tread challens (not on the rubber that’s supposed to touch the road!).

Whenever using any kind of tire shine material, note that the tire aging process is not necessarily going to be very profoundly influenced. The gloss might keep it looking shiny, where in fact the tire might be extremlly aged, and don’t forget that the tread ages too. If carefully taken care off, the tires could live a bit of over four years, or 5.5 years in countries with colder weather. So, the suggestion to replace tires once every three to four years remains, but with a good treatment, the tires can maintain their original properties longer across the given service period, improving safety.

Rubber is a polymer,  i.e. a long chain or macro-molecules that interconnect in a three-dimensional space, with the aid of special adhesives. When heat and Ionazing radiation (UVB and UVA) hit the surface of the polymer, they cause the solvents and adhesives to dissolve in a chemical process of defusion. The lost of those chemical agents, along with the heat, makes the polymer molecules generate new connections that might create a chemical shear that could tear them apart. Sylicon can filter out some of the sunrays and the UV, while reducing the heat and contact with moist and oxygen, and preventing some of the solvents from escaping.

Working Temperature

Tires have a working temperature that make them less grippy in cold mornings. It takes a decent amount of driving to get a tire’s tread warmed up (around twenty minutes) and performance tires are much more dependant on temperature and will not build up to heat -especially on worn tarmac -making them less grippy than normal tires. Tire grip also varies depending on debries: A short cut through a dirt road can cover the tires in dirt that adds a bit of weight, but also reduces the grip levels from 0.7 to 0.55 or so (it will wear off after a few single miles of driving). Mud or snow can clug up a tire and cause more significant additions of weight (a kilogram or more) and drastic drops in grip level, and even wet tires are ungrippy relative to dry ones. Even a seemingly clean tire has some dust and sand in it and will have more grip after it’s scrubbed down.

Tire inflation

Just as important as tire wear is tire pressure. Modern Radial tires are not as sensitive to under-inflation as bias-ply tires. Having said that, it’s importance is still very large, and is just important as having new tires. Driving with under-inflated tires can lead to grip levels that might resemble driving on a wet road, where it is perfectly dry. Tires naturally lose air at an average rate of 2PSIG per month, but that’s just an average, low quality tires will lose even more on some tires, and especially in hot summer conditions, and in the front wheels which are effected by the heat of the engine and it’s load.

So the recommendation to check air pressure once a month is not a very good one. Air pressure should be checked once every two weeks. This would also make the required “tweaks” for the pressure to be little, so it can be done faster than it takes to refuel the car. The pressure should be checked and inflated on cold tires, and with a reliable pump and gage.

Finding the manufacturer’s specifications of air pressure can be quite an expedition in times: The sticker can appear on the B-pillar on both front doors (below window height) or on the door frame itself in about that height, or even on the A-pillar when the door is opened. It might appear under the hood itself or likewise in the trunk. They might appear on the gas tank cover (in German cars) or in the glove compartment, as well as over the wheel-arches and inside the car’s handbook. Trust those specifications and not the ones that might appear in the gas station. If you cannot find it (the sticker might fall off) look at an identical car or use google. It’s worthwhile to know that modern light automobiles operate at around 30PSIG.

A change of even two-three PSIG can facilitate a subtle but noticable difference, and make dramatic changes to tire wear on long highway drives. A seemingly small change of a reduced inflation by 20% can be classified as dangerous, because the car’s stopping distance, wear and chance of failure increase by about the same amount. In wet surfaces there is less wear, but the grip levels and stopping distance are reduced far more drastically than on the dry.

Under such under-inflation, tires can be seen deforming laterally by several inches, even in slow cornering, where any attempt to approach the limit will make the tire distort extremlly, leaving not one or two milimeters of rubber between the rim and road. (Think about it, a tire deforms between 20 to 200 million times in it’s service period!)This can make the car slide in a very uncontroable manner. In extreme situations, the sliding tire can give a feeling of “jolts” which can be later seen on the pavement as darker areas of the skid mark, where the tire’s sidewall was flat against the ground. This risks you with having the tire peel off of the rim or getting caught in a bump of the road, both leading to a roll-over, or in having the tire seriously damaged by getting pinched under the rim and/or getting it’s fabric and steel wools rupture around the area of the tire’s shoulder.

When tires are driven or even exposed to very hot sun, they heat up and the air inside them expands. A tire with 28PSIG might show a reading of 30PSIG, and you might think it’s well-inflated, where in fact it is still under-inflated! It’s important to estimate the heat in the tire. After ten minutes and/or two kilometers of driving in the sun at even 50km/h (30mph), your tires might be warm enough to require an extra 5% of pressure. If you drive for 15 minutes you will need an extra 10%. 20 minutes of high-speed driving can increase the air by 15%, and 20% after half a hour, and even more in a hot day.

Usually, an 10% addition solves the dillemas. The heat in the tire can felt by putting the back of your hand on the sidewall of the tire, near the tread. Don’t expect the front and rear tires to heat up symmetrically. Also, don’t excpet the tires to cool down very quickly. It can take even three hours to disperse the heat of driving for forty minutes on a highway in a sunny day.

A tool that can help you is a personal tire gage. The cheapest and most simple is the pencil gage. It is a simple device made of a one-way pressure valve leading into a vacuum-chamber connected to a spring. You can easily find and purchase one in a very cheap price, with a pressure reading range of up to 40 to 60 PSIG. This kind of gage will be accurate down to about 0.5 of a PSIG, and be resistant to blows and shocks, unlike digital gages and dial gages. The most effective gage is a 0 to 60, oil-filled, rubber-encased dial gage.

This kind of gage enables to measure the air pressure at home and follow the changes when the tire heats up. Also, it enables to confirm the readings of the gas station pump, especially an analog pump with a handlebar, although it’s recommended to ensure that the pump is doing a good job if it’s a brand new digital one. They are often neglected, knocked about, and suffer from bad filtering, misfire in the electric engine, bad lubrication, and other problems that make it “miss” the right pressure.

Effects of under-inflation

The underinflated tire becomes softer and generated a wider profile. However, the softness makes it fold in the center of the tread, lifting parts of the tread off of the pavement. The center of the tread is more durable, grippy and is better in draining water. It is also directly responsible for accelerating and slowing down the car, so under-inflation dramatically increases stopping distances. The effects become much more acute in the wet, where the folds catch water inside them and make the tire skim and “hydroplane” very easily. The tread blocks twist and close up and the tire recieves a concave shape that disables it’s ability to penetrate the layer of water.

The car’s cornering is also compromised, because the softer tires is pushed by side forces so the sidewall cramms towards the outside of the corner, and twists the tire. This increases wear and, under severe under-inflation, can be heared as lound screetches (under-inflated tires are more loud). Slight under-inflation improves ride comfort, but the effect is bearly felt. Beyond that point the tire becomes too thin and cannot dampen bumps, and the narrow tread creates little turbulances of air, that generate more tire noise.

The tires generate more heat, and are in a risk of blow-outs, and slide earlier, albeit more progressively, but with less control over the slides, due to the sideways distortion of the sidewall. They increase wear on other car parts like brakes, drivetrain and steering linkages. Underinflation is useless, save in very specific situations of off-roading and even than the inflation should not be reduced by more than 20% for dunes or deep mud. Over a tire’s life-spawn, differences of as little as 0.5 of a PSIG can make a difference on it’s wear, and in racing tires the accuracy goes down to single tenths of a PSIG (with use of advanced instrumentation like tire temperature probes).

Effects of over-inflation

Over-inflation is better than under-inflation, in any day! Over-inflation does not cause the tire to blow up, unless you fill it well beyond it’s maximum capacity (which is well above the “maximum pressure” limit stated on the tire’s sidewall). An overinflated tire becomes stiffer and hence distorts less and generates less heat. It makes the tire recieve a concave shape, so it grips the road more with it’s center and not the shoulders.

However, modern radial tires won’t suffer from excessive wear due to this kind of inflation (although there is more wear than in normal driving), and will maintain higher grip because the tire will not bend so much under cornering. Within a range of about 10% of over-inflation, the tire will generate more grip than with proper inflation! The tires will react more instantly to driver’s inputs. They will also break traction more suddenly and with less feel, but will provide better control even during slides, and supply a more accurate feedback than under-inflated tires. If you drive the car hard, on race-tracks or while roaming winding roads, over-inflation can reduce wear.

While it is recommended to drive with the appropriate pressure recommended by the manufacturer, it’s advised to prefer over-inflation over under-inflation when in doubt, and even choosing to drive at all times with an addition 2-3 PSIG is very acceptable. If your tires have a problem with noise or wet grip, you might choose to experiment with such slight over-inflation to try and solve those problems. Overinflation is also used in performance driving, on winding mountain roads as on the race track, where it in fact reduces the wear. Do know, however, that over-inflation will increase tire wear on rugged surfaces (unlike on tarmac roads). Always remember than superflous pressure can be manually bled out at home.

Tire Marks

When investigating a crash area, tire marks can be quite informative. A good inspection can lead to conclusions as to the abrasiveness of the road surface and grip levels of the tire, as well as to the actions of the driver at the scene. In cars without ABS, strong braking on dry surfaces can be seen as black skid-marks of molten rubber. Depending on the speed, grip level of the tire, force of braking and abrasiveness of the surface, the skid mark might range from hardly noticeable, to a uniform black strap.

In many situations, one can see a relatively light tire mark, which is riddled with little pieces of torn rubber. This is characteristic to grip and temperature levels in a mid-range level. In a more extreme situation, there would be a clear black mark, in the form of the tire’s tread. This can also indicate the tire’s pressure, as under-inflated tire would normally create a darker skid mark where the shoulders of the tire will also leave a mark.

ABS, along with benefits of maintained steerability, stability and reduced stopping distances (in most cases) usually removes the skid marks, unless it is a very archaic model, a particularly abrasive or hot surface or a heavy vehicle like a truck.

The molten rubber indicates high grip levels and loads of braking and gravity, but it also indicates that the braking is longer than it should be, since the molten rubber partitions the tire’s surface from the road, reducing the overall grip. It also brings a high probability of a flat spot. Even braking steady from 40mph to a stop on abrasive, hot tarmac can lead to a small flatspot (in a size of milimeter or so), which can be felt as a juddering ride, and can be repaired or flattened by driving over it. Simiar flat spots can be caused by leaving the car stationary for long periods of time (a few months) on a low tire pressure.

A wet or slippery surface usually reduces this kind of wear very significantly, but some unpaved surfaces can increase it by chipping the tread. A cold road surface can also be quite helpfull, reducing tire wear and stopping distances by a few precious precents (up to 10%!).

Sideways sliding can be seen as rougly straight-line skid marks, indicating understeer caused by a sliding of the front wheels, or spiraling tire marks with an inconsistent shade, indicating oversteer. The understeer tire marks are usually quite solid and wide, but become more faint along the way as the cornering radius increasing, where the oversteered car will sharpen the angle of the sliding tire from millisecond to millisecond, and also make the front tires slide. Sudden black stains can be interprated as the sidewall cramming unto the road surface due to a bump or the function of the suspension, or as a moment of collision with some object that generated resistance against the tire.

Load on tires

Situations where you might be in doubt, other than hot tires, can also be when the car is loaded with luggage and/or passengers. Manufacturers recommend a different pressure for a fully loaded car and sometimes for a semi-loaded car. Even three adult passengers can be considered semi or even fully loaded. Some tires (snow, mud and all-terrain tires) will even be sensitive to the change of load formed by one passenger.

Modern tires are made to carry weights which exceed their own weight between 40 to almost 300 times their own weight (the highest value in achieved in aircrafts and very heavy trucks). The increase of weight increases the downforce that gives the tire more grip (based on the formula mv²/r = mgμ). So, if you have three adult passengers in the back, your back tires should have more grip, right? No, because the increased mass also increases the lateral force experienced by the tires, so the two effects should cancel each other out. However, the coefficient of friction is also reduced (slightly, though) under extra load, so over all there is a reduction of grip. The extra air pressure allows this effect to be canceled out so the grip level is overall increased

It can be beneficial to inflate tires with nitrogen. Nitrogen molecules escape through the innerliner at a much slower pace, and they don’t allow moist to enter the tire and improve heat desperse. However, nitrogen inflation is not crucial to your safety, and it’s possible to yield good results with normal air, by periodically replacing the air inside the tire with fresh air, to get rid of moist, dust and chemicals/rubber dust inside the tire. This is best done when the car is lifted and with a personal pump, but it is possible to bleed out about 70% of the pressure safely when the car is parked and leveld, and immediately reinflate at the gas station, once every six months. As a rule of thumb, by applying slight pressure against the valve, you will bleed out one PSIG for every ten seconds. This changes on each individual nuzzle, on the amount of pressure applied and the form of the object used to apply pressure.

Tire pressure can also be monitored via a RPSM system fitted unto the rims (very highly recommended! ), and through a less efficient system where changes in the air pressure are detected by the ABS sensors. It’s still important to periodically use a reliable gage for a manual check. To ensure proper inflation with the gas station digital pump, you might choose to inflate each tire twice. The system will make adjustments and reach a pressure closer to what is necessary.

It’s important to keep the nuzzle caps on. If they get lost, the nuzzle will pick up dust and dirt, which will apply pressure against the valve to lead to a slow but constant lost of air pressure. It’s also important to realise that these rules apply for all FIVE tires, reserve tire included. It losses air just as much as all other tires, and it is important for it to be properly inflated. It’s actually better to inflate it with a few additional PSIG, due to the lost of air over time. Some cars have a thin fifth wheel (due to reason based on cost, size and weight) that is usually inflated in a very high pressure (often the maximal possible pressure). Also remember than reserve tires placed on the rear bumper or under the hood, wear out just as much as the tires on the wheels. Have it replaced periodically.

Another note: Tire pressure cannot be judged visualy in modern radial tires. They have a reinforced sidewall and they lose air pressure at a slow, unnoticed rate. The result is that even when the tire is under-inflated by 50% (which increases milleage by 10%, tire wear by 70%, pollution by 45%, dry grip by 30% and wet grip by 70%!), will be bearely noticable when not moving. Kicking, pushing and looking at the tire is not going to show any difference and the naked eye of a skilled individual will at best notice that the shoulders are slightly crammed unto the road.  While moving, however, and especially while cornering at a conservative speed, the tire’s sidewall wil distort extremlly.

Tire gauges

The simple dial gauge works by use of a flexible pipe that is forced to erection when the air pressure runs through it. This effects a wire that turns a set of gears that rotate the clock. The clock operates better in it’s midrange and when the resistance to it’s movement is reduced by use of oil filling. The problem is with the multiple mechanical parts, especially the gearing. Some dial gauges are shaped like “cams” which involve a more complex gearing system, which is far more suspicious for misreading and malfunctions. Do not trust such a gauge as it can be off by 3 to 18 PSIG!

A pencil gauge is by far more simple. If is simply formed by a chamber with a sprung piston on one side and a one-side valve (normally a scharder valve) which pushes a bar that specifies the correct inflation. These are less accurate than electronic or dial gauges, but are more reliable than public gauges and will not be knocked out of callibration by blows. A good pencil gauge can be as accurate as 0.5 of a PSIG.

The air pump itself is a reciprocating Air compressor which uses a series of pistons to pump the air from the chamber to the tire. There is a lost of efficiency through the operation of the pistons as they become worn, of the operation of the electric engine that operates them; the air regulator can be knocked out of alignment. There is a leak of air from the edges of the hose (which can often be heared very audibly). The pumps have been found none-accurate by checks in the US and UK, and they are subsequentally adjusted in advance so that they fill “too much” air so they will result in overinflation rather than under-inflation, if they do miss the right amount of air. It’s also a good idea to let the pump blow some air at the ground to see if it drops water (due to water vapor that has not been filtered or drained properly).

Tire placement and rotation

While it is possible to purchase two pairs of tires that share similar treats, it’s highly advised to purchase a foursome of identical tires. These tires should of course fit the rims of the car, and the index of load and speed relevant for the car. Modern radial tires have a steel belt that becomes twisted in the direction of the steering angle (based on the wheel alignment), so it cannot be rotated around like old tires.

The solution is to take the tire place it on a different rim while keeping it rolling in the same direction. The tires should be “rotated” this way once every eight to fifteen thousand kilometers (rotate it at 10,000 kilometers as an average), so the front-left tire is moved to the rear-right rim and vice versa. This cancels out the wear caused by the alignment of the front wheels and the application of forces through the front in a front-wheel driven car, as well as by the features or normal urban driving where the right side tends to meet curbs and tighter cornering efforts. The rotation is particularly relevant where the car is front-wheel driven, powerfull and where the driving style is not very smooth or gentle. Driving in towns and winding roads also accelerates wear and requires a replacement at 10,000 (if not at a mere 6000!) instead of 15,000.

When tires get worn, the popular advice is to place the good tires on the rear. The front wheels of the car tilt when you turn the wheel and they rotate you into corners. The rear wheels have to keep the car in line with the front wheels. Worn rear wheels, resulting in a slide (or blow-out) will make the car slide out and spin around (oversteer). If the front wheels are worn and slide (or blow-out) they would slide forward and out of the corner, known as understeer. This kind of slide is easily felt through the steering, and is more naturally recovered from by slowing down or even turning the wheel more tightly into the corner.

However, it’s important to understand the front wheels carry most of the weight, sprung and unsprung, and deliver forces of braking, cornering and acceleration onto the road. 70 to 90% of the braking force comes from the front (based on the forward weight transfer), so having bad front tires is like having bad brakes. So, the only sane advice is that the good wheels go on all four wheels! Tires are relativelly cheap, and if one or two have been worn, now is the time to replace all four of them. You cannot compromise your braking or your stability.

Tire damage

Another kind of wear is physical wear such as buldges, cracks, scratches and alike. These are caused by various conditions:

– A blow-out due to overheating. Will be caused by driving with too much load and/or too little air pressure, while moving at a high speed (above 80km/h) for long periods of time (at least 30 minutes) in hot days. The sudden heat and movement of the layers will make them become apart and the tire will blow out. The blowout will cut the tread from the sidewalls due the massive heat buildup in the thick shoulders. Tread detachment can occur due to under-inflation, combined with stress (sudden steering) and other problems like excessive load or misaligned wheels.

Declamation of parts of tread is caused by the tread being punctured (without reaching the tire’s interal layers) in an old tire. The puncture developes into a large crack when the tire is driven. Cuts and Gouging are caused due to contact with the chassis (wheel arches) due to misapplied spacers, wide rims, excessive steering angles or a twist of the tin.Likewise, infamous “Flat spots” will happen due to hard braking (without ABS) on dry surface, even for relatively short intrevals, sliding or when a car is parked and not driven over a long time. Stains and swells will be normaly caused due to chemicals around the tires, mainly oils.

Other kinds of wear include:

  • A pinch that occurs under low inflation when going over a bump or curb, resulting is swelling.
  • A cut caused by a sharp object being projected by the car unto the sidewall.
  • A scuff caused by contact with a curb
  • Circumferential wear around the middle of the sidewall, indicating low air pressure and a strong side force in a high-profile tire
  • Air pockets that occur due to a manufacturing defect or sudden blow from a curb, making air move from the innerliner and in between the other layers of the rubber.
  • Sidewall rupture while driving on a tire that has been deflated or hit by something.
  • Black powder inside the tire, as a result of constant driving on very low air pressure
  • Diagonal wear: A series of flat spots running diagonally across the tire, indicating a misaligned rear suspension in both camber and toe angles. This wear creates a whooming road noise.
  • Distortion of the tread: The tire lugs recieve wear like “heel and toe” wear (when the front edges of the lugs are worn) which occurs a strong application of engine torque through the drive wheels when they are under-inflated. Other tires will exhibit a “feathering” wear on the lateral edges of the lugs, due to alignment problems, resistance of wind and other reasons.
  • Cupping: Caused due to wobble or worn dampers, the tires develop a “wave” like wear formation around the tread.
  • Distortion of the tire carcas: Caused by infiltration of moist through cuts in the tire, making the steel nets rust and distort, changing the tire from it’s round shape. Nowadays very rare.
  • Peeling: Under extreme under-inflation and a sudden load of cornering and/or braking, the tire can peel off of the rim, causing it to dig into the road and potentially roll the car.
  • Tread Chipping: Air bubbles and chipping of the tread when over-inflated tires are driven over rugged terrain.
  • Tread Splice: A manufacturing fault where a lateral crack appears over the tread and develops into a rupture
  • Split Cords: Where the cords inside the tire create a lateral bludge of the tread and both shoulders.
  • Bad repairs where the tire’s heel is damaged by the fitting machine, or where a small puncture is being repaired with molten rubber from the inside, or with a long cord. These repairs were once custom in bias-ply tires, but turned dangerous with radial tires, especially under loads. Punctures in the shoulders are irrecoverable.

There are also kinds of wear that are not dangerous or important: Darker lines that appear across the tread after a certain amount of wear. This is a result of the various kinds of rubber compounds fitted onto a single tires: The manufacturer might choose to fit softer rubber around the shoulders, for good cornering.

Others types of “alledged” wear are colored spots along the tire that indicate where shallow or thick spots of the rubber are placed. Sorts of bludging that occur as a result of where the rubber layers overlap, or used as tread depth indicators. All of these are natural products of the tire’s construction.

Tires are also likely to suffer from road debries: Little stones retented into the tread, sand and dust on the face of the tire and etcetra. The effect of those variants is not detrimental, but they do reduce road holding (which is part of why race-car drivers zig-zag the track when the heat-up the tires) and can cause aging and stress related wear to deteriorate. It’s a good idea to get the tires cleaned when you rotate them.

Excessive wear in the center of the tread or shoulders is not likely to occur due to underinflation in modern steel belted radials, but more likely due to misalignment or bad springs. The effects can be felt withint three months or 4,000km.

Another kind of wear is caused by little stones that get stuck inside the tread. This stones don’t usually cause damage, and they are thrown out of the tires while driving, but it is best to clear out whatever stones you might find, as an occasional bump can make them protrude deeper and harm the tread, and they harm it’s ability to dispers heat. Truck tires have an angeled tread to prevent so-called “stone retention.”

Storing tires is a problematic subject. They are best stored in areas off with a constant temperature of less than 25 degrees celsius and above freezing temperatures, with no change of temperature of over 0.15 degrees celsius, in the shade (especially not around neon lighting), with dry air and low ozone-oxygen concentration (under 0.05 particles per million). The compartment should not be radiant-abosrbing (like black or bright surfaces) and clear of wetness, grease or dust.

If the tires are fitted on a rim, they should be inflated at one BAR (10KPa), stacked and the order of the stack should be reversed every four weeks and re-organised alltoghether once every six weeks. Free tires should be left standing, and rolled over once every four weeks over a machine. The tires should be covered with a sylicon spray. The use of such sprays and other substances during the tire’s actual use is less recommended, as most of them don’t work and many might do harm.

Reading the Tire

The outer circumference of the tire, below the shoulders, include an triangular indicator of wear. It’s point marks the edge of the tread’s shoulder, which should also mean the edge of the area that grips the road. Under very low inflation and/or faulty camber angle, wear might be exhibited beyond this mark, which is not wanted. Modern tires are somewhat adjusted to this possibility, so the external circumference of the sidewall includes a rugged rubber surface, like a rumble strip, which also helps to disperse heat.

Beyond this circumference are imprinted the first stats over the rubber.These include the name of the manufacturer and the name of the tire, as well as it’s classification as “Radial”, “Bias-Ply”, “All steel”, “stel-belted” and “Tubeless”/”Tubetype.” It also specifies the tire sizes and destination (like snow tires, mud tires, etc…) and the required speed and load index and maybe a letter than means that the tire is designated for a certain car (Like N for Porsche).

At the small circumference, near the heel of the tire, are printed the data of maximum pressure, maximum load and American (DOT), Japanese (JIC) and/or European (Eu) stamps are found with the specification of country of origin and the tire’s age code. On the heels themselves, covered by the lip of the rim, is the barcode of the tire.

Tire Size

Let’s look at an average tire of 195/60R15. What does it mean? “195” contributes the tire’s tread width, from shoulder to shoulder, in milimeters, which changes in up to 4% (in this case 78mm!) depending on inflation. “60” Contributes a certain aspect ratio which means that the height of the tire’s shoulder is equal to 60% of it’s width. This state also changes slightly (but significantly) with changes of tire pressure. R contributes the tire’s identity as a “Radial” and 15 is the width of the rim in inches.

This method is the “German” Method and it is widely used in Europe since the 70’s in light vehicles and progressively in light trucks. The American method can be used in this example: “31×10.5R15.” This tire has an external diameter of 31 inches, section width of 10.5 and an internal width (rim width) of 15 inches. Some tires have the same method without the section width data.

The aspect ratio is important because a bigger sidewall means more air and rubber used as a spring, but also more lateral motion of the shoulder under cornering. Low-profile tires are thus less comfortable and sharper, but also more grippy and compliant. Wider tires contribute by increasing grip levels, on the expense of a heavier tire, which increases gas milleage.

Speed Index

The speed index describes a speed where the tire, being fully loaded (based on the load index) and fully inflated (based on the maximum inflation state) will be critically damaged after ten minutes of driving. In practice, the actual speed a tire can sustain can be higher, in cold weather, normal loading and proper or slightly excessive inflation, or lower on hot roads (tarmac can heat to over 70 degrees celsius) with underinflated, misaligned, old or overloaded tires.

L = 120km/h
M = 130
N = 140
P = 150
Q = 160
R = 170
S = 180
T = 190
U = 200
H = 210

Load Index

The Load index is also determind at the maximum speed and with full inflation. It can therefore be theoretically possible to load the car beyond the stated amount, albeit being highly unrecommended. Bias-Ply tires either have a Ply Rating (specifying the amount of plies) and/or Load Range from A (two plies) to E (10 plies).

0 — 450 Kilograms
81 — 462
82 — 475
83 — 487
84 — 500
85 — 515
86 — 530
87 — 545
88 — 560
89 — 580
90 — 600
91 — 615
92 — 630
93 — 650
94 — 670
95 — 690
96 — 710
97 — 730
98 — 750
99 — 775
100 — 800
101 — 825
102 — 850
103 — 875
104 — 900


The “E” Approval is the European standard of all tires after 1997. It includes the “E” stamp (which can also be printed as a small “e” for tires in line only with directive 99/33/EEC), and a circulated (or rectangulated) number which is a code for the tire’s place of origin: A country code, followed by the numerical approval for the given brand. For instance, a tire with the first two figures of “E10” stands for a tire from Yugoslavia; where a tire with the last two last figures, “0U” stands for Ling-Long Tires from Shandong, China (Tires that were found to be highly inefficient in a certain test in Britian).

The American DOT approval has taken it a step further to specify in twelve letters to describe the exact origin of the tire, plus the date of production, which is the date I described above.

Other markings

Other tire markings include: An D or DA stamp (for “Defected” Tires), a Yellow dot which is a bit more dense and heavy than the rest of the tire. This is aligned with the heavy point of the rim, where the air nuzzle is placed. A red dot for a “protruding” spot on the tire, and lines and figures that are used in the manufacturing process to categorise the different layers, before they are extruded or mounted toghether. This process also creates the little “studs” of rubber than seem to cover the face of a new tire, formed by the escape of air bubbles from inside the layers when they are vulcanized.

The “dense” and “high” spots of the tire are discovered through the carefull inspection of the tire after it’s assembled in the factory. After being extruded, wrapped and vulcanized, the tire is checked with X-ray, weight and Uniformity. New tires are also wrapped in an external sylicon layer than wears off after 5000km or so.

Tire Plies

The tire also includes a specification for it’s plies and, in radials, for the plies of the sidewall and the plies of the tread. The plies include: External rubber layer for grip around the tread. Internal rubber layers for structural rigidity of the tread and sidewall. Belts of dual steel nets that reinforce the tire’s carcass, and than synthetic fabrics of one of these kinds:

1. Nylon: The first fabric applied into tires, nowadays replaced due to it’s “morning sickness” which made it deform until heated by driving. Older tires also used Cotton.

2. Polyester: The most popular replacement of nylon. Less rigid than nylon fabric, but does not distort. The Polyester can be produced in different densities for different qualities.

3. Rion: Good for ride comfort and grip (better hysteresis), but is vulnerable for moist, should it protrude through even shallow cuts of the tire. Replacing it with polyester and improving the steel cords reduced the amount of carcass distortions in modern tires.

4. Kevlar: A replacment for the steel nets because it provides better rigidity for the same weight (about four times as much!), although being more expensive and less resistant to punctures.

5. Inner-liner: The internal layer supposed to hold the air inside the tire. It is made of special synthetic rubber (usually Bromo Isobutylene) and an internal fabric layer.

Tread Patterns

The tread depends on the tire’s type. Normal road tires have a soft tread of about 8.5mm, while M&S tires will have a greater “void ratio” (i.e. more lugs). The tread ratio increases for mud tires, snow tires and special ice tires, and the rubber compound become more stiff. On the road, the greater “void ratio” means that a greater part of the rubber is not gripping the ground. However, it is required for dispersing heat and channeling water on wet roads.

However, on mud, snow and ice, the tread generates grip by biting into the road surface. Mud tires usually also “ridges” inside the tread that help push the chunks of mud (or snow) that get trapped in it, while a road tire will get “plugged.” Likewise, the edges of the tread are placed in a sharper angle relative to the road, which helps disperse the chuncks. The tread is even present on the shoulders, to provide grip by biting into the sides of wheel ruts in the mud or snow. These tires don’t have sips in the shoulders or on the tread. Those little “sips” are intended to give the tread some flexibility and to open up and sip water when it contacts the road, and than squirt them out as the tire continues to rotate. The sips are removed to improve the rigidity of the lugs in mud or snow tires.

These tread patterns are bad on dry tarmac roads as they will suffer from acute wear, produce a lot of vacuum and turbulances to create noise, and provide reduced grip. The more agressive or effective a mud tire is on mud, or a snow tire on the snow, the worst it is on the road. It’s bigger “chunks” of tread will produce a louder noise and it will be highly effected load. On such tires, even one passenger will increase stopping distances in sudden braking. Ice tires with nails will also damage the road surface. Snow or Winter tires are also effective during the winter when the road is not frozen, as the rubber compound is fit to the low temperature, where a summer tire will not provide sufficient grip. The same occurs when snow tires are used on the dry.

One interesting tire is a tire for dune-driving. These tires are round-shaped in all directions, including the section of the tread. It has no tread depth, and only little “flippers”, all designed for the tire to drive over the sand and not “bite” into it and create steps that will make it sink.

The tread on most tires is also devised in such a shape so that the tread is not the same on any “cube.” Each one is slightly different in shape and/or size. Even the most slim differences change the direction of air turbulence and make the different sounds that cancel each other out, to produce a noise below 75db (85 in DOT standards).

To a certain extent, the shape of the tread can be indicate it’s design: You can see trucks with front tires that are shaped with longitudinal “ribs.” The ribs offer a low rolling resistance (less wear and gas consumption), good steering control and good ventilation against heat build-up. The problem of this design is with longitudinal forces of strong braking and acceleration, especially on the wet.

The rear tires of the same trucks, as well as many SUV vehicles are formed as “lugs” that have grooves that open to the sides. These offer better grip, but still far from ideal on public roads, added to an increased rolling resistance and more noise. These wheels are good for the back of trucks or for light off-road use.

The classic road tire is formed in a way that divides it into “blocks.” This formation offers a good compromise between wet and dry performance, as well as between longitudinal and lateral wear. The downside is that the tire is heavier, more suspect to wear, sliding and noise than more complex designs. Most road tires comb

Why People Love and Collect Antique Cars

Antique cars and classic cars collecting, restoring, and showing have become the number one pass time for many classic car enthusiasts. Whether you’re new to antique cars as a hobby, or a seasoned collector, the internet has information on classic cars, car parts, accessories, car shows and antique car sales, and more. first antique automobile was made in 1672 by a Chinese monk, and was steam powered. Then, around 1769, The Cugnot Steam Trolley was capable of transporting humans was produced. Other steam engine cars followed. By today’s standards, the steam car would be considered a green alternative to modern gas guzzlers. New hybrid cars still don’t operate on nothing but steam power like the steam trolley did over two hundred years ago.

It wasn’t until 1806 that the first car with an internal combustible engine appeared. The internal combustible engine cars began to hook us all on vehicles that were powered with the use of gas and oil. In 1885, a more modern version of the internal combustible engine car was introduced. Even electric cars were designed very early in the twentieth century, but faded out in favor of gas powered vehicles. The Ford Museum, in Detroit, MI. still has a running, working model of Ford’s first electric motor on display. Antique Ford cars are highly collectible and well known in classic car circles.

There are several eras of collectible automobile history. Each era has a specific term to define the particular types of classic cars made during those time frames. Knowing certain antique car terms can help you to decide which antique car era you want to focus on as an antique car collector or restorer.

Classic cars from the 1890’s and earlier are termed “Veteran Era” antique autos. From around the 1900’s to 19190, those classic cars are generally referred to as the “Brass”, or “Edwardian” era collector cars. A very popular area for antique car collectors is the “Vintage” 1920’s era classics. Through the 1930’s to the 1950’s, there are “Pre-war” era classic cars. 1950’s through 1970’s are termed: “Post-war” classic or antique cars.

Cars that are twenty years old or older are generally referred to as “antique” cars. Another classic and collector car term you will hear is the term: “muscle cars”; which generally refer to sports cars made between the 1960’s to 1980’s. Whatever your classic antique car interest may be, the internet gives all the information, history, and antique car sales.

Antique Car collecting and restoration is a hobby practiced by people all over the world. Even American celebrities fall in love with them. Jay Leno, in addition to hosting the Tonight Show, is known for his huge collection of antique cars and motorcycles going all the way back to the early 20th century. Past stars known for their love of cars are Larry Hagman and Steve McQueen.

One of the reasons people love antique cars is that, for them, it brings back childhood or teenage memories. Maybe they had their first date in that car, or that is the car the family when on annual picnics, or maybe it was the car to have when they were young but they couldn’t afford it. The nostalgia market is worth billions of dollars and those longing for the antique autos of their youth account for only a small piece of it.

GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen

At a Glance…

  • Car Audio and Video + GPS 1-DIN unit
  • GPS navigation system enabled to run almost all of today’s popular GPS software
  • Large 7-inch touchscreen with 4-direction slide and swivel motorized display

GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen
GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen
GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen GPS Navigation and Car Audio System with 7 Inch Touchscreen
Manufacturer Specifications

  • Primary Function: 1-DIN Car DVD Player with large 7-inch display and Bluetooth and GPS functionality
  • Operation: Touch screen or remote control
  • Size: 1-DIN standard (50mm)
  • Discs/Formats Played:
    – Discs: DVD, VCD,
    – File types: MP4, Divx, MPEG, MP3, WMA, JPEG
  • Display Information
    – Screen: 7 Inch TFT LCD Touch Screen
    – Aspect Ratio: 16:9, 4:3
    – Resolution: 480×234 RGB
    – Vertical Angle: 0 to 90 (motorized sliding display panel)
    – Horizontal Swivel: YES
    – Video Systems: PAL, NTSC, AUTO
  • Bluetooth Functions
    – Pair with phone – then use touchscreen interface
    – Dial Call
    – Answer Call
    – Repeat Last Call
    – Dial Received Calls
    – Dial Missed Calls
    – Touchscreen Keypad
  • GPS Information
    – GUI Interface: YES – 3D type
    – Touchscreen Interface: YES
    – Operating Environment: Win CE 5.0 (compatible with all major GPS software packages)
    – Languages: English, Dutch, French, Spanish, Russian, Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese (simplified and traditional). Important Note: Actual GPS voice and display languages depends on the GPS software package you choose to use
  • Audio Information
    – Max Audio Output: 50W x 4
    – Signal-To-Noise Ratio SNR: 65dB
    – User adjustable: Loud, EQ (pop, rock, classical), Fader and Balance
  • AM/FM Radio Tuner
    – RDS System: YES
    – Channel Storage: YES (40 stations)
    – AM Frequency Range: worldwide
    – FM Frequency Range: worldwide
  • TV Tuner Information
    – TV Type: Analog
    – Channel Storage: YES (99 stations)
    – Color Systems: NTSC, PAL (M,N)
  • Front Panel Buttons/Controls
    – Rotary Knob (volume/adjustment select)
    – SRC/Power ON and OFF
    – Mini-USB port
    – Reject/Hang Up Call
    – Answer Call
    – Disk Eject
    – Detach front panel
    – 5 position direction key
  • Screen Buttons/Controls
    – Screen Angle Adjust (UP/DOWN)
    – Screen open or hide
    – Swivel direction
    – Decrease/Increase
    – Menu toggle
  • Media Inputs
    – GPS card slot (located on top of unit)
    – SD/MMC card slot
    – Mini-USB port
    – DVD/CD disc slot
  • Rear Cable/Wire Connections
    – GPS Antenna IN
    – Radio Antenna IN
    – TV Antenna IN
    – RCA Audio OUT (L and R)
    – RCA Audio OUT (L and R)
    – AUX Video IN
    – AUX Video IN
    – AUX Video IN
    – AUX Audio IN
    – AUX Audio L/R IN
    – Rearview Camera IN
    – Video OUT 1
    – Video OUT 2
    – Left front speaker x2
    – Right front speaker x2
    – Left rear speaker x2
    – Right rear speaker x2
    – DC 12V out
  • Dimensions: 178 mm x 163mm x 50mm (L x D x H); depth = 198 mm including front panel
  • OSD Languages: English, French, Spanish, Dutch, Italian, Russian, Portuguese
  • System Setup Language: English
  • Operating Temperature: 0 C to 55 C
  • Manufacturer Ref: AW8TCMH5DA0A
  • Certification: CE, TUV, GS
  • Catalog Ref: Vehicle multi media player, Car touch screen entertainment center, Car stereo headunit, GPS car unit

Product Notes

  • This model is compatible with most brands of GPS software – however hardware specific software such as Garmin may not run on this unit. As the wholesaler, Chinavasion provides the GPS-enabled hardware only, not the software. Chinavasion provides no warranty or customer support regarding GPS software. Chinavasion cannot provide downloads / links / advice regarding GPS software. Any software installation you undertake should be performed or supervised by a professional.
  • Wonder if you can really do it yourself? Check this out – Information On Installing A Car DVD Player
  • Note: Antenna’s are not included. AM/FM Radio and Analog TV should work off your cars own antenna.

Package Contents

  • Model CVSA-C06 GPS Car Audio 1-DIN System with Bluetooth, DVD, 7-inch TFT LCD
  • Detachable face plate and case
  • Remote Control
  • GPS Antenna
  • Mini-USB to female usb cable
  • ISO Wire Harness
  • Mounting Hardware
  • Users Manual – English
  • GPS Navigation instructions – English
  • Connection guide – English

FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions

  • Does this unit work in my home language of ___________ (Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, … ) ? The display and voice languages the GPS unit uses for navigation and map display depends on the GPS maps being used. Most map software comes with a wide selection of language choices, which means both the display and sound (voice) will be in your preferred language. However, you should carefully select and buy the map software that is best suited for your region of the world.
  • Does this unit come with antenna’s? This unit comes with a magnetic base GPS antenna. For the analog TV function and AM/FM radio you can use your cars own antenna or buy a separate antenna (an antenna signal splitter may be needed to feed both the TV and Radio antenna inputs).
  • Do I need to remove the piece of plastic which is sticking out the battery compartment of the remote control? Yes, please remove the little piece of plastic. It was inserted to keep the battery and the terminals separate so as to not waste battery power.

Supplier Harvester Spare Parts

Windsor is the leading exporter of Rasp Bar and Blades having agricultural application. We have vast sale network all over the world to better serve the global market. We are a leading manufacturer & exporter of modern Agricultural Tools Blade & Rasp Bar for harvesting activities.We are committed to offer to our customers the most cost effective range of Combine Harvester Equipment. Our products are developed after careful study of agricultural conditions and farmers requirements for optimum applicability.

Windsor exports: leading manufacturer and supplier of harvester parts.

We are the leading manufacturer and suppliers of combine harvester parts like rasp bars, mower double fingers, grain lifters, wooden coupling, blades, cutter bars etc. We have vast range for these agricultural implements and spare parts for combine harvester. Recently, we established a new in house facility for forged guards (fingers). We have world class CNC machines for manufacturing these double fingers. We use CK-45 material from high quality billet for manufacturing. But it can be vary according to customer requirement. We are producing very good quality. We use carbide tools for machining so that first and the last piece remain in the same dimensions. Our fingers are exported to Germany, Italy, Poland, France etc. We never have complaints from our customers. Hope you will also try our product and will establish a good business relationship.

Products Raspbars

  • Bison Combine
  • Class Raspbars
  • John Deere Respbars


  • Deutz Fahr Blades
  • Johan Deere
  • Claas Blades
  • New Holland
  • Universal
  • Miscellaneous

Finger Grain lifters

combine harvester parts manufacturer and supplier windsor Exports, suppling harvester parts world Wide.

Ferrari F430 and 360 Modena Wheels and Tires

There are many choices and styles to look at when you are looking for Ferrari Wheels and Tires. Options abound as well as the cost of wheels and tires for your car. You want to get the nicest wheels and tires that you can get and also stay within your budget.

There are the Hamann Edition Race Wheels and Tires. As well as the Novitech NF3 series for your Ferrari F430 or Ferraro 360 Modena sports-car. If you are purchasing your wheels for your F430, There are the Hamann Anniversary Special Edition F430 Wheels. They are all in the $13,000 to $15,000 range. One nice option with the Novitech NF3 Wheels is there is a Custom Color Option for around in these figures.

In any case you should be able to purchase a set of wheels and tires in the $6,000 to $17,000 range at highest. A Ferrari is defiantly an investment not to be taken lightly. So you will want to choose the wheel’s that will best suit you and your personal style. There are many options to choose from when you are shopping for your wheels and tires. You want to do your car and your wallet proud while feeling satisfied that you got the best deal for your dollar.

When it comes to satisfaction of a purchase well made and a smile on the customers face. Also, shiny new wheels on an Italian Classic Race Car. You will know that you got the best wheels and tires for you and your car. And you saved money while you did it.

What Factors Influence The Value Of A Used Car?

Wanted to buy a used car but have since backtracked fearing it to be a bad investment? Or are you trying to sell your old car but have been getting too many rejection letters from potential buyers and dealers alike? Well, all of this may have stemmed from a miscalculation of the value that your old car up for sale in Kolkata or elsewhere can fetch. This may be because of several reasons, especially ones that you do not have an inkling of. below are some of the factors that may influence the value of your car, adversely or in a positive manner. Irrespective of how it reduces or appreciates the price of your used car, you need to keep them in mind while setting a price tag for your car to the dealer or while buying one too!

• After Purchase Accessories – While installing a fantastic set of accessories in your car, you may be improving the “bling” status of your vehicle, but will be in a soup when you decide to resell it to a dealer or a potential buyer. This is because ot many people want to buy the music system or air conditioner used in a car for 4 years. Instead they would buy a new one and install it, rather than buy your used accessory for even half of the original price. This makes recovering the costs of these accessories through the used car dealers almost impossible!

• Accidents and Damage – Of course superficial damage from accidents are a worry and reduces the price of the car inevitably. This also means a loss for the vehicle owner – who will have to repair the damage and also cannot add the costs to the price tag of the second hand car. On the other hand, internal damage can also cause a lot of price depreciation for the vehicle. Keep these factors in mind while buying or selling the second hand car from the concerned dealer next time!

• Modifications – are also a major concern for people who often end up paying up much more than their actual costs. If you are adding racing stripes, or ramped up engines or even muscle car hoods to your car, you should be aware that the implications of the same on your insurance costs will be huge. Moreover, if you are thinking of selling the car with the same mods to the next buyer, most would not take it for as it is – ask you to tear the additions down or simply reject your offer. So think twice before you take that embellishment leap!

• Other Factors – include seasonal discounts, impact of the weather on what models of a car will be bought more (summers are not for open top convertibles), as well as other issues like mechanic certification etc.

If you are really keen on buying or selling a second hand car online via a dealer, these factors will keep you well informed on the right price tag for the vehicle on your radar!

All about the Pioneer DEH-P4200UB Car Audio System

Pioneer Electronics needs no introduction and has been around since 1938. They not only give good music systems but also deliver some of the latest innovations and high-quality products in car entertainment system. Continuing the Award winning run is the Pioneer DEH-P4200UB car audio head unit which is a complete package with a wide range of audio options in a well-designed package. player does not have built-in Bluetooth, nor does it the play satellite radio without the addition of an accessory. Nonetheless, it is still holds its place as one of the top car stereo receivers. You can start off the fun by putting in a CD or plug in your MP3 player. The CD plays most formats from MP3, WMA, WAV to iTunes AAC, and CD-R and CD-RW formats as well. You can easily know what you are listening with the large Organic Electroluminescent (OEL) display. Just plug your MP3 player into the car audio receiver at the front panel auxiliary input or the USB port. The USB port also charges your iPod and you can control your iPod through the in-dash head unit unless you use the required CD-IU50 interface cable.

The iTunes feature allows you to tag a song that is playing on the radio. Once it is tagged, it is on your iPod list. Just connect it for iTunes tag to work and later you can catch hold of the song and buy it, if you like it.

You can also get to use the Bluetooth device with the Pioneer DEH-P4200UB with an extra adapter. Once you get the adapter you can sync the receiver to your Bluetooth-enabled phone and talk hands-free. The adapter also has a built-in microphone and you can hear the caller through your car speakers.

You can also keep thieves at bay by just detaching the face plate when you are leaving the car. Just make sure you have a carrying case for the detachable front panel. You also get a handy remote control with simple functions like control volume levels and select tracks or scan radio stations. So no more looking for stations or adjusting volume while you are driving. The simplistic interface of the remote control allows for safer driving.

You can set up to 18 FM and six AM preset stations. The FM frequency range goes from 87.9 to 107.9MHz and it has an AM frequency range of 530 to 1,710 kHz. This takes care of all your entertainment needs when you are on the move.

Overall the Pioneer car audio system will keep you hooked on to your car with the wide range of features. It is also Bluetooth, HD Radio and satellite radio compatible with extra accessories. Adapters are required in order for this car audio receiver to perform many of the things that modern users want. It is capable of playing all formats of MP3s, CDs and radio which is packaged in a well-crafted design. The Pioneer DEH-P4200UB in-dash receiver is an excellent way to head the audio in your car.

Prominently-featured Japanese Used Cars in the Internet

It’s really interesting finding out about the most prominent featured Japanese used cars in online magazines, blogs, and motoring websites. It gives users a grasp on who’s who in the auto industry, and provides information on cars without requiring you to own one first. People would already have a car in mind when asked about what they think are the most popular cars from Japan, and it makes you think what exactly makes these cars so well-known. These models have become icons of Japanese automotive culture. Toyota Corolla
The Corolla is reputed to sell one unit every forty seconds—well you don’t have to take this literally as this may also mean that ever since this model was launched to the market, the number of units sold from then until now surpasses any other car in history. What makes it a bestseller is its supreme reliability, so much so that it is also one of the first cars to need a sixth digit on its odometer—it just keeps on running!

Top Competitors: Honda Civic & Honda Accord
The fuel-efficient Civic came just in time to alleviate the lives of millions of auto-using Americans during the oil crisis in the Seventies. The success of the Civic paved the way for the introduction of the Accord, which was to become the first Japanese model to be assembled in US shores, and consequently become one of Honda’s bestsellers, competing with Toyota’s Camry.

Affordable Speed: Datsun 240Z
A list of the most prominently-featured Japanese used cars won’t be complete without the Datsun 240Z, known by its classier name Nissan Fairlady Z in Japan. Back when sports cars were admired from afar by enthusiasts (the Porsches and Ferraris were simply not budget-friendly), the Datsun 240Z provided a sleek and fast ride for a much affordable price.

Hybrid Pioneer: Toyota Prius
As people began to be more conscious about the environment and are encouraged to make proactive steps in conserving resources, Toyota launched the Prius in 1997, the world’s first mass-produced hybrid. The Prius was a good start in hybrid technology, and soon after its release other car manufacturers followed suit, each coming up with new hybrid and electric models, and making hybrid versions of existing models. The Prius also gets top mileage, and is very popular among Hollywood celebrities.

Unique Rotary Engine: Mazda RX-7
Motorsport fans would always cite the RX-7 as one of the most iconic sports cars from Japan. It is one of the most prominent featured Japanese used cars because of its 1146cc twin-rotor engine. Rotary engines are small and light, but are extremely powerful.

True Japanese Exotic: Acura NSX
This sports model was designed to compete with the Ferrari 328, but enthusiasts agree that it’s actually way better than the Italian model, and it was much more affordable too. It’s been called an everyday supercar, and some folks would also attest that it is probably the best sports car that has ever been built.

That’s all for now. There are plenty of other models that have become prominently-featured Japanese used cars over the years, such as the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, the Nissan Skyline GT-R, and the Mazda Miata. We’ll take a look into the other models in our future articles, so keep on reading!

Looking for Cummins Spare Parts Online? Trust Official Dealers

Cummins Engine Parts The Cummins brand is known all over the world for their high quality line of diesel and natural gas-powered engine products which can be used both on and off the highway.  With their main headquarters in Columbus, Indiana, there are a wide range of Cummins spare parts available from various official Cummins dealer sites throughout the UK to use in the servicing of your vehicle from turbochargers to fuel filters.

These official dealer sites make it easy for customers to find the Cummins engine system parts that they need. All Cummins parts dealers supply genuine engine parts and can also offer their expert advice and services on the products if you are unsure of what exactly you require to get your car in to tip-top condition.

The Cummins diesel engine was originally unmistakeable hard to miss as they were all bright red in colour. All their engines are highly efficient and are found in almost every type of vehicle around the globe from fire engines to 18-wheeler trucks and even marine vessels.

Only the most up-to-date technologies are used in the design and manufacturing of Cummins engine parts, allowing their customers to improve on their emissions requirements while at the same time getting the most out of their engines performance.

The Cummins brand is also known to distribute a wide range of high quality exhaust system technology and electrical power generation products. When it comes to the turbo technologies, all of their turbochargers are built for 3 litre diesel engines and higher while their latest fuels systems support engine applications up to 78 litres.

There are many ways and places to buy Cummins spare parts but be sure to look out for authentic Cummins dealers only. To buy Cummins parts from a trusted official Cummins dealer then go to the Foxwood Diesel website today. With over 50 years of combined experience in the motoring industry Foxwood stock a wide variety of genuine parts and reconditioned components. Visit their store online today and view their range of latest products.

Motorcycle Tire Care

It is essential to keep your motorcycle tires in good condition. Proper motorcycle tire care is needed to keep the life span of your tire much longer. Doing a weekly or monthly check up is a recommended habit to ensure that your tires are still safe to use. tire care is done to ensure that the tire walls does not have any cuts or cracks in them as this may do great damage to the tire even how small the crack or cut is. One important thing to check is the air pressure of the tire. You must always maintain enough pressure to have a safe motorcycle ride. Proper pressure also allows your motorcycle cycle to have a better performance. Make sure that the air pressure does not get low as this make it harder to control the motorcycle. Having low air pressures can cause the tire to separate and it may even cause some blowouts. Blowouts are caused by a heated tire due to a low air pressure. So it is really important to monitor the air pressure of your motorcycle tire.

The tread wear is also an important part of the tire. Vehicular accidents are most likely to occur when there is no enough tread. Most known manufacturers will say that a tread depth of 32 seconds of an inch means that it is time to replace the tire. A lot of people ride their motorcycles with a bald tire. This is not a very good practice as you will be prone to accidents. Remember, you only have two tires so you do not need a bald tire. You need both tires in good condition to prevent possible accidents. You must always ensure your own safety and the way to do this is to make sure you have a correct tread depth.

The rims play a very important role in keeping the tires for a long period of time. It keeps the shape more intact. If you are having a spoke rim, it is important that you tighten them correctly to prevent any damage. It is recommended to have a professional tighten them up for you. They are more knowledgeable on how to secure them and they have the proper equipment in tightening it up. If your rims are solid, this may cause your tire to dent and wear faster and even cause them to wobble along the way. This is quite a dangerous situation and very much unsafe. You have to replace them immediately.

Maintaining motorcycle tires are important. It is just like taking care of your own life. A small problem in the tires may lead to a much bigger one. That is why proper motorcycle care must be done in a regular basis. You have to keep them free from any kind of problem that could possibly cause a much greater problem in the future. Check the tires every now and then to ensure that you will be traveling safe miles with a good motorcycle tire.

A Brief History of the sport of drifting

Originally, a motorcycle racer, Takahashi got fame in 1961 as the first ever Japanese rider to actually win the Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix on a 250cc Honda. A serious injury in 1962 reduced his motorcycle racing career and made him start racing in cars. He started utilizing many drifting manoeuvres out of requirement to take on tight corners while maintaining the speed. Not only did it assist Takahashi win drifting, races on the speedway also won him various followers among the fans. Fans were exhilarated by this brand new style of racing and Takahashi’s crowd pleasing antics on the track.

The ambition of the young street racer, Tsuchiya devoted himself to the drift methods of Takahashi. As an upcoming racer, Tsuchiya made something completely unique, elevating drifting from a mere racing method to a complete sport in its own right. Tsuchiya’s early practice runs on Japan’s twisty mountain roads have become the stuff of legend, the Japanese term for mountain pass, Touge, has entered street racing vocabulary in languages and countries all across the world.

With the assist of a few car and tuning magazines, Tsuchiya made a short video featuring the drifting skills and methods titled ‘Pluspy’. The video debuted in 1987 and was an instant hit inspiring countless amateurs and professionals, all of whom wholeheartedly accepted this new sport. Soon after the release, many others got inspired to learn to drift. Grand Prix is very near to drifting and this has led to these tournaments in Japan and all across the world.

Right debuting in the late 80’s, competitive drifting has left a lasting impression in the racing world. Drifting is now a contemporary motor-sports culture, with races taking place in highways and speedways all over the world. The simple and relative low cost of modifying one’s car for drifting has sadly lead to vibrant, yet illegal, underground drifting scene in various countries. Unlike other types of competitive motor-sports, it is fairly simple for the average muscle car owner to add some modifications to the vehicle to transform it into a drift racer. While great for enticing new fans to driving lesson, this also leads to the surge in illegal underground races held in the public roads.

The Grand Prix tournaments have gone beyond the borders of Japan and are now held in countries all across the world. If you also want to learn it, you should want to get enrolled in any drifting school.

How to Connect Smartphone to Android Car DVD

Our smartphones now carry much more information about ourselves than any other phones ever had. And a big part of that information is our music collection. It most probably occupies the biggest part of the SD card on our smartphone, and we would like to listen to it anywhere and anytime. And a part of our day where we would want to entertain from our Android 2 din Car Stereo is when we drive in our cars, going from place to place.

If you want to connect your smartphone to your Android Car DVD so you can listen to music via the car’s speakers, you have a few options.

1. Connect Smartphone to Car with Bluetooth

In order to do so, your stereo must have Bluetooth integrated. Newer models, sometimes called smart radios now have this feature integrated. From here, the process is very simple. Just turn on the Bluetooth in the car radio and search for it from your device. You will have to pair the devices, and in the majority of stereos, the pairing PIN code is written in the manual. Once you’ve done this, your device will always connect to the radio when you start it.

2. Purchase a Bluetooth Device

Many smartphone manufacturers offer BMW Navigation that allow you to connect your smartphone to the car’s audio system. They connect via audio cable to the stereo and via Bluetooth to the smartphone. Blackberry offers the Music Gateway device that does exactly this, but you can find other aftermarket devices, that allows you to pair your Android device to your car’s radio. Also, Belkin offers a great car AUX system for connecting your smartphone to your car’s audio system.

3. Connect Via USB or AUX

This is by far the simplest solution and the cheapest possible. All you have to do is connect your smartphone to the car stereo via the AUX port, using a “male-to-male” 3.5″ jack connector. Plug in one end to your smartphone and the other to the AUX port on your stereo. To use the USB cable, the process is similar, but your stereo has to have USB connectivity integrated. The process is the same as with the AUX cable.

Regardless of how much work you have to do to integrate your smartphone into your Android Car DVD, the important thing is that you consider how to use it safely when you’re driving. It’s great to be able to use your phone’s conveniences during your commute, but only so long as you’re keeping yourself (and others) out of harm’s way.

Driving Adventure with Go-Karting Experience

Everyone likes cars and racing. Apart from driving on the road like we do every day, people also like to get the feel of professional racing car drivers. With various adventures, it is actually possible to get this feeling. adventure
In Haltom City, you can enjoy the fun of Fast Kars. This is a lovely place where you can drive amazing cars. You will love to visit this place and feel the energy. Here, you can drive well designed cars that resemble the sports cars you see on television and films. You will feel like an awesome movie star riding these cars. There are many interesting cars to choose from. You will like the smooth and well managed track. This place has a lot of features. It looks like an actual track used for car racing. If you are a fan of car racing sport, you will surely love to be here. At fast karts Haltom City, you can explore the world of professional racing and also be safe while doing so. The Fast Karts Haltom City offers you the chance to have the best time riding. From car driving is very exciting; you can have this wonderful experience of Haltom City easily. You will love to spend time here. You will understand the nuances of professional racing by driving here. The cars are very well maintained. Since it is very essential to maintain security standards, Fast Karts are very particular about it. You can use their things without any problem. You will never have any trouble driving here.

Go-Karting is a fun activity. Many people love to drive here. The amazing cars in doing this activity are very thrilling. They offer a good and memorable experience of driving. You will love to visit go-kartingFort Worth. This place is very amazing as it has a lot of interesting things. The track for driving is very smooth and long. You will get the feel of an expert racer here.  Go-Karting Fort Worth has a lot of wonderful activities. You can indulge in racing or just drive for fun. You can take a number of laps and get the thrill of racing here. Go-karting is a very popular adventure sport. People love to drive fearlessly here. Since go-karting is all about speed and skill, you will love to experience this sport. Anybody can do this activity. You do not need to be an expert to do this. Every year many people come to Fort Worth to try go-karting. This well maintained facility is very impressive and has some of the best quality equipments. Hence, Forth Worth attracts many tourists and enthusiasts. You will love to visit this place. You will be given very good service here. This posh and well designed facility will make your stay very pleasurable. You will love to come here time and again. Even you have been to other such places, this place will make sure that you have a good time. Hence, you should surely come here.

Early Model Porsche Classic Sports Cars

Porsche 356

The first Porsche classic model was made in 1948 and was called the Porsche 356. It came in as a 2-door coupe and 2-door convertible. It had a four-cylinder horizontally opposed engine with 40 bhp of power reaching top speed of around 140 km/h. The model has been in production for over 17 years and in 1965 the company moved to a new prototype – Porsche 901.

Porsche 901

Porsche 901 was delivered to the market after almost 10 years of development. Porsche was accused of taking the naming rights of another car producer – Peugeot, for using 3 digits number with 0 in the middle. For this, Porsche changed the name of their Porsche 901 prototypes to Porsche 911. This affected many other Porsche models with similar names – Porsche 904, 906, etc. However, the number 1 had its unique magnetism and Porsche decided to stick to it. Thus, the 0 in the middle was substituted with 1.

Porsche 901 was firstly created as a four-seated model. However, as a continuation of the of the Porsche 356 it had to have a rear engine located at the back which defined this model as two-seated. Thus, a six-cylinder Boxer engine was used for the Porsche 901l. The car was so remarkable that Mr. Ferry Porsche presented it as the unmistakable character of the Porsc he sports car. Porsche 911 continues its development till present.

Porsche 912

In 1965 the company started working on another version of the 365 prototype – Porsche 912 which outsold the Porsche 911 for the first year. In USA, it became a market leader. The Porsche 912 was an economical Porsche with a four-cylindered Boxer rear engine with 1.6 litters capacity. The dimensions of the first Porsche 912, were:

Height: 1,320 mm

Porsche 912 was also remarkable for its top speed – 185 km/h. However since 1969 the prototype is no longer produced. The company moved to another model.

Porsche 914

In the same year, Porsche launched Porsche 914. Long before it came out, the Porsche 914 was already popular as a wonderful sport car at an affordable price – around 12,000 DM. The design of the car was reported by many drivers to be a real tease – elegant and sporty. The body-work of the model was done by the company Karmann. This model came with four different engine options, long wheelbase and Tagra or Coupe body. With its great advantages Porsche 914 quickly became the current best selling model.

Importance of Automobile Spare Parts

Variety of products and services are available in the market, which can make the efforts of a person minimum. There is a wide range of high quality automobile spare parts that is well reckoned in the market for quality and performance. The huge gamut of automobile spare parts offered in the market includes auto electrical parts, auto engine parts, rubber parts, suspension parts etc. The automobile spare parts are manufactured from the optimum quality raw materials using advanced technology machines. High efficiency, easy installation and no maintenance are some of the salient features of the good automobile spare parts.

With the implementation of latest technologies and components of high quality, the auto electrical spares are manufactured by various companies. Some of the companies provide expertise of designing the range of parts as per sample or specific drawings provided by the clients. To enhance the quality of the ranges provided, the companies believe in interacting with the clients and taking their feedbacks.

Various companies design, manufacture and offer auto electrical parts that are largely used in varied auto electrical applications. Manufactured using high grade brass, these products assure required durability, accurate malleability, corrosion resistance and longer working life. These auto electrical parts are available in different sizes & dimensions and are used in different electrical applications in various industries. The range of auto electrical spares includes brass housing for temperature sensors and switches for auto electrical parts.

Fuel injection spares include a wide range of dimensions and specifications. Fuel injection spares are manufactured by a team of engineers and technical experts. Fuel injection spares is durable in quality and is widely demanded by the clients in the international market. Use of premium quality material and advanced technology, gives a cutting edge to the automotive diesel injection parts manufactured. As there are a wide number of manufacturers which offer fuel injection spares for the consumers at the best competitive prices.

Connecting rods create a link between various mechanisms. One end of a connecting rod follows the circular path whereas the other end follows a path along with a straight line of big radius. Connecting rods are basically an important engine part which requires being replaced frequently due to improper installation or use of faulty engine parts. These connecting rods are available with customization as per the specification detailed by the customers. Today, connecting rods are best known through their use in internal combustion piston engines, such as car engines. These are of a distinctly different design from earlier forms of connecting rods, used in steam engines and steam locomotives. Connecting rods may also convert rotating motion into linear motion.

Customize Your Classic Car – Paint Your Own Rims

Paint your own Rims? Who would have thought something previously done by professionals could be done in your own home., the concept of painting your own rims has been around a few years now, many questions pop up of how to do it and I thought I would share my own experiences with painting my Integra stock rims. I have read up many examples of how to do this, but my first time trying was this year when I chose to refinish my winter rims. I was quite please with the outcome.

First, what the hell do you need to paint your rims? Paint of course :) This is where Duplicolor comes in with their wheel paint. They offer paint colors to match your style coming in white, gunmetal, classic silver and bronze as well. I chose to do mine in gunmetal leaving my lip the stock polished style look. So here are your options:

So you chose your color, bought your paint and are semi-ready. First, you need to sand down your rims. Why? This gives the surface a rough texture so the paint has something to adhere to. Reference the article to polish your rims on how sanding of the rims works. The only difference with this is how far you want to go. In my case, being winter rims painted I chose not to go through the process of stripping the paint on the rims completely. I simply sanded down the surface with 300 grit sandpaper ensuring to make everything sanded equally. This gives the rough surface required for the paint to adhere, and as long as your rims had no damage it should be good enough.

Your rims are sanded; you have your paint and now are ready. First, make sure you clean all sanding dust off the rims and ensure a totally clean surface so the paint will stick and not flake off after your first drive out with your newly painted rims!!! Here are my rims washed and ready to completely dry before painting:

My rims are masked off with newspaper and masking tape. Of course you want to do this so you don’t turn your tires into the color you are painting. I don’t want gunmetal painted tires. Also if you look close enough, you will know that the lip has been masked off as well. So I carefully applied the masking tape on the lip to protect it from being painted as well. Also, you know the little thing you pump your air into, mask that off as well unless you want that to have a color change as well :)

The rims are dry, you have masked off what you don’t want painted and now you are ready. Put some newspaper on the ground and place the rim on top of the newspaper. You don’t want to paint the concrete underneath the rim so keep it clean with the newspaper.

Now apply your first coat of paint. Let the paint dry well and next day admire your handiwork and results.

Collector Car Market Report: 1969 Chevrolet Camaro Z28

The 1969 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 market has softened significantly in the last 12-18 months. The global recession is being felt in the collector car market. A few years ago a 1969 Camaro Z28, any Camaro really, looked to be a rocketship investment, regularly reaching six-figure bids. Now, good to great examples can be had for between $40-$60k.

That said, first generation Camaros have a lot going for them that will always keep them desireable. For one, they are handsome machines, well-proportioned with aggressive muscle car bodywork sure to turns heads.

Then there’s the legendary Chevy small block V8 rumble. From, “The 302 Z28 engine is the smallest V-8 ever installed in a Camaro to date. It is also the only engine available new in any ’67-69 Z28. Based on a 4.00-inch bore and a 3.00-inch stroke, the little engine made lots of power above 5,000 rpm and very little below. This engine’s 290hp rating was very underrated. In stock trim, actual power was in the mid-300hp range. These engines were designed specifically to compete in SCCA road racing and came with a huge resume of hardcore race parts: a Holley 800-cfm carburetor, big-runner aluminum intake manifold, 2.02 heads, a high-lift mechanical camshaft (0.485-inch lift), 11:1 compression, full-floating wrist pins, a forged crankshaft, and more. Because the engine did not produce much torque and had such high rpm capability beyond 7,000 rpm, 302 Z28s were only offered with four-speed transmission and were not available with air conditioning. Chevrolet also sold several cross-ram-intake setups (two staggered four-barrel Holley carburetors) and special race camshafts for the early Z28s that helped the 302 gain even more high-rpm power. With some modifications these engines would easily produce power well above 400 horses (at very high rpm).”

To keep your car burning rubber now and into the future, aftermarket, NOS, and factory-authorized reproduction parts are plentiful. The first generation Camaro is probably one of the easiest cars to keep on the road out there.

Perhaps the most important thing to look out for when shopping is rust, which can be hiding just about anywhere. Don’t assume the owner has been vigilant. Dig deep to prove it for yourself.

Besides that, make sure the car is original and not a clone, unless you want a clone, which can save you thousands of dollars for 90% of the fun. Also, these are not refined luxury automobiles and will always squeak and rattle.

Whether you’re a die-hard Camaro disciple or just want a great muscle car, first generation Camaros are easy to fix, to restore to original or to customize to your heart’s content.

11 steps for setup Bass Face car audio system

Bass significantly increase overall quality of sound but we know most cars have not bass face audio system that’s why we setup manually but if cars have stock bass face audio systems that come by default from the assembly line. These systems can be good. Mainly two reasons if the current system has not proper hardware or bass face audio setup is not proper or complete. If this problem then it is better to choose right Bass Face car audio setup. you know how to setup Bass Face car audio then you do setup yourself. Through this way you can save your time and money. But at a setup time be careful and remember that not do any mistake. Before setup If possible then first note or remember each step how to setup Bass Face car audio?

You can easily setup Bass Face car audio by follow this step:

1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. Use a wrench or pliers to loosen the negative and positive battery cables.

2. Move the negative battery cable away from the battery terminal to prevent shorting the car’s electrical system and connected components.

3. Remove the positive battery cable and place the amplifier ring terminal onto the positive battery post. Return the positive battery cable to the positive battery post and tighten the cable to the battery with the wrench or pliers.

4. Connect the amp wiring kit power supply cable to the ring terminal. Remove the fuse from the car until the installation is complete.

5. Use an already established path to the inside the car or create a new one with a drill and 14 mm drill bit. Place a rubber grommet into the new opening in the firewall to protect the cable.

6. Remove the car stereo. Consult the car repair manual for exact instructions. Disconnect the stereo wiring and antenna cable from the back of the stock unit.

7. Pull the bass audio system and antenna cable from the back of the dock.

8. Plug the stereo wiring connectors into the leads of a wiring harness adapter. Plug patch cables into the leads of the adapter and feed them through the back of the stereo dock and down to the floor of the car.

9. Plug the wiring harness adapter leads, antenna cable and then connect the adapter to the antenna outlet.

10. Return to the car’s engine compartment. Place the negative battery cable back onto the negative battery post and tighten the cable to the terminal with a wrench.

11. Replace the fuse into the ring terminal fuse holder. Close the hood.

Ride the Car in the Best Way with Go-Karting Experience

If you like to drive fast cars, you will love go-karting. Since everybody likes cars and speed, go-karting has become a popular activity. Many people do go-karting very often. You must have seen many places that offer amazing go-karting experience. You will love to perform this activity. Since go-karting is becoming very popular, people have started exploring other aspects of this activity. You can also have fun go-karting with friends. If you are new to go-karting, you will surely enjoy this adventure sport. With amazing Go-Kart Track, you will love to ride the car in the best way possible. You will get a lot of thrill from it. about Go-Kart
Go-Karting is a very popular adventure sport. Since people like to watch fast cars, they are always looking for an opportunity to drive such cars. These amazing sports cars are very good looking. They are designed in a way to give maximum comfort. They resemble professionally driven sports cars to an extent. Their design and body attracts many people. Due to this reason people always look for a chance to drive them. With stunning Go-Kart Track, you will be able to drive these cars easily. These tracks are well designed. They are smooth and very cute. You will love to see them and drive on them all the time. You can have Go-Kart rides as much as you want. Since people like to drive and have fun here, there is no limit to Go-Kart rides here. If you want to spend a lot of time here, you will be given full access to the resources available here. You can have an interrupted time here. Since people are very passionate about go-karting, you will see many excited people trying this sport. You will be pleased to be one of the people enjoying here. There are many things that people do here. You can also chill here and relax. Spending time here will make you feel nice. You will love to be here. You can try different things here.

Wonderful experience
Go-karting is all about fun and excitement. To have a good experience here, you will good facilities. The cars should be well designed. They should be able to bear your weight. Since these cars are driving at a high speed, they should be able to handle the speed. All these things are taken care of here. You will not have to worry about any of these aspects. Hence, you should be carefree while driving here. You will see many people enjoying their time here. With excellent cars, you can get a great experience. Hence, you must visit this place regularly. With practice, you will get better at this sport. You will have a good time here. You can different tricks while driving here. The safe environment provided here is very conducive for excellent driving. You will surely love to race here. The cars and the ambience will definitely do you love this place. Hence, you should be here. It will be a memorable experience.

Spare parts dealers the gateway to road accidents

The Kaduna state Spare Parts Association of Nigeria has passed a law to regulate the sales of fake spare parts, stating that statistics haves proven that 45% of road accident are caused by counterfeit spare parts by spare parts dealers.

The Chairman of Kaduna state Spare Parts Association and the Salikin Yaki to the Governor of Kaduna state Arc. Namadi Muhammad  Sambo, Alh. Yahaya Ibrahim sad, “The increase of road accident have been a great challenge to us as thousands of lives are lost on daily basis, so, to find a solution we embark on a research  which have proven that 45% of road accident are caused by fake spare parts.

In an interview with Nigerian Tribune Alh. Yahaya Ibrahim said “The spare parts dealers have no value for human lives; they import much of fake spare part and less of the original, instead of them to let the buyers know the difference between the original and the  sub-standard parts they just sale fake spare parts in place of the original.  They are just after money making and by so doing they become the gate way to road accident because by the time one is on the high and those parts fail it leads to road accident and unfortunate death.”

“To put an end to this menace we have passed a law in Kaduna state regulates the rate of import and sale of fake products. These law states that no spare parts dealer must sale fake spare parts that have to deal with the brake, the stealing, tire, the gear front and back wheels, fan belt etc because the areas are the parts that when they fail it take a lot of lives.”

Alh. Yahaya Ibrahim further added, “The price difference between the original and the sub-standard spare parts is much that sometimes the buyers prefer the sub-standard one to the original. The spare parts dealers must tell the buyers that this is original and that is fake and should also indicate in the receipt that the buyers bought a sub-standard products.”

“We formerly advised the buyers to go with mechanic to buy the spare parts but our findings have proven that when a car owner asks a mechanics to buy the parts since they know the original and the fake. Instead of the mechanic to buy the original brake pads to N5000 the mechanics went ahead to buy for the fake one for N1000 from the spare parts dealers in order to make money and fix the fake parts in the car without the consent of the car owner. So, we now advice the car owners to ask the mechanic to list the parts he needed in fixing the car and let the car owners go and buy them themselves directly from the spare parts dealers.

Make Your Own Rc Drift Tires

Back before RC drifting become as commercial as it is today, we used to use a couple of tricks to get ourselves sideways, I explore a little drift history and explain how you can make your own drift tires on a shoestring. soon as I realized that 1/10 scale remote control cars were almost identical to real cars, I knew they would drift, the only problem was that without an incredibly powerful motor and a huge tire budget it just wasn’t a reality.

At first we tried to change the surface, as there quiet a few places where you can drift really well on rubber tires, underground parking lots for example. It wasn’t until a few months later that we started to experiment with changing the tires to drift, the first thing we did to tape the tires, this involves using insulation tape to leave the tire without any traction, there is a specific way which works the best, you only tape the outside edges of your tire, or what I found also works as taking a strip down the center of each tire, but leaving the edges open rubber.

You need to experiment to find out what works best with your particular car and driving style.

It wasn’t long after we first started drifting that other types of tires started to pop up, Tamiya released a drift tire which was a very hard rubber, this gave a little too much traction, but with a nitro car they are just perfect. Yokomo had a set of tires that included two hard plastic rings, they were replaceable, but at a pretty steep cost, they later retired these for a solid center replaceable ring, that still wares out too quickly and costs too much to replace.

Currently the tire of choice is a completely hard tire made from polyethylene, which give a very nice amount of grip for drifting, these are last much longer than the tape or hard rubber tires. In me experience the polyethylene tires can last well over a year.

To fit the polyethylene tires the best way to do it is to heat up the tire and cool down the rim, I put the rims in a fridge for a few hours and use a hair dryer to heat up the tires, then they slide over each other and when they cool down / heat up the polyethylene tire will fit snugly on the rims.

One of the most important things to consider when choosing a drift tire is what everyone else is using, it’s difficult to compete with people who are using a different type of tire as it will make your car perform differently to the one on the track, if you have too much traction you’ll have too much speed, then you will out run the others, which would be a good thing if you were racing. no enough traction and you won’t be able to keep up with the big drifts.

Taping your tires is a great place to start, but it doesn’t last long, at best only a couple of runs, and it’s not something you can use in a competition and expect to place.

Spinner Rims – Non Stop Rotation With Style

If you’re like a lot of us you probably want to own the newest, latest, and greatest thing on the block. Well I’m sure if you’re into car wheels and rims then you’ve probably been contemplating throwing down some cash to pick up spinners. has now seen these wheels that give your car the appearance of it still moving even though it has come to a complete stop. Originating from Hip Hop and music videos spinner rims have now made it to the streets of every major city and suburb and are definitely a way to up the style of your car – welcome to the rim big leagues.

Installing Spinners up on your Ride
Just like normal car rims when you’re hunting around to purchase spinner wheels you’re going to come across a whole variety of options. If you’re just getting into the whole rim game then you may want to consider buying spinning rims as a set package which will probably come with both rims and a good set of tires.

A good choice for people who already have rims installed is to purchase them as attachments that you just mount to your existing wheels. When you buy attachment spinners they’ll usually come with a set up kit that includes mounting bolts and lug nuts. You or the installation professional will use these to attach the spinners to your current rims. One thing to watch out for is often with spinning rims they are made for cars with rear wheel drive.

If you do have a front wheel drive vehicle don’t panic because there are more and more companies that produce spinner rims for front wheel drive cars and trucks. Go do your research online and you’ll come up with a solution in no time.

Using the Internet to Buy Spinners
As with most things these days you can and should use the Internet to research, compare, and read reviews and recommendations about spinning rims. After you’ve done research and if you feel confident you can also purchase your wheels through the web.

Of course there are things you’re going to want to watch out for if you do decide to make your purchase online. Make sure that the dealer is reputable and has some proof of satisfied customers. Also look into how long they have been in business and if they have a physical store as well as online presence.

You’re also going to want to look into shipping costs. Some online shops will offer free shipping with the purchase of rims while others will of course charge you for the shipping. Lastly be sure to check if the website you’re planning on buying from offers a warranty on the rims you have chosen to buy so you are protected in case of any problems.

How to Get Classic Car Insurance in Arizona

Arizona is the home for classic cars, with the nice dry weather and many retirees living in the state. Many classic car and muscle car owners are older men, the baby boomers that fueled the muscle car craze in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. They want their old cars that they once drove (and raced), now that they are retired and can maybe spend the extra money and time they need for them. Finding the right auto insurance for your classic car in AZ should not be difficult, as long as you know a few basics of the law and standards in classic car insurance. few requirements will be needed to be qualified for classic car insurance in Arizona. First off, a garage will be required for your classic car. I’m sure this won’t be a problem for most, since that blistering summer sun can do some damage to any paint job if left out long enough. If your car is being restored or not in great condition from the start, you may be able to get away with having a canopy or other type of shelter. Make sure you explain to the insuring company the exceptions, and they may be able to work with you. As I will show later, contacting a specialty collector car insurance company may give you more relaxed policies depending on your specific needs. Typical auto insurance companies used for daily driving vehicles may not work with your exceptions as well as specialty car insurers.

The next requirement is having a driver’s license for at least 10 years, and it must be a fairly clean driving record. The decision about the driving record will be made by the individual insurance company, so you may need to shop around if your record is not that great. Furthermore, you will need a daily driving vehicle. NO insurance company will insure your classic car if you do not have another vehicle to use for your daily commuting. The daily driving vehicle does not have to be insured by the same company, but having the car is a requirement. Nearly all insurance companies put a mileage restriction per year on miles driven on the classic car, usually 2,500 to 5,000 miles. The more miles allowed, the higher the premium.

Most car insurers will classify the term “classic car” to mean anything older than 15 years, and sometimes 20 depending on the insurance company standards, so keep that in consideration when shopping around. For most situations, you should choose the ‘Agreed “Value” policy. You and the insurance company will determine a full replacement amount on the vehicle, and you will be covered to that amount always. The other policy sometimes offered is the “stated Value”. You do not want this one, since the depreciation value will be taken off the value of the vehicle.

The biggest tip that can be offered is to compare specialty collector car insurance providers. You could end up finding cheaper rates, better coverage, and the process could be a lot simpler than going through a typical auto insurance company. Specialty car insurance companies only deal with specialty and classic cars, so they know how to properly value a car, and can guide you through the process easily. Not only will you have less headaches, but you will be able to properly value your car.

How to draw cars

The first step in drawing

Drawing is a hobby that takes a lot of time to learn as with anything else. But once learned you can create some nice drawings or paintings. Below i will explain how i draw pictures of muscle cars and hotrods. I choose cars is because there is lots of detail and cars are kind of challenging to draw.

The tools you need are a drawing pad, pencil, eraser, tape measure opional and a picture to draw.

The first step in drawing is i look for a nice detailed muscle car or hotrod first from my tablet. But you don’t have to find a detailed picture to start out with, since you are first starting out drawing. Once i have found a picture of the car.

Second step is get your pencil and pad and start to sketch the outline of the car on the pad first the best you can. You can use a tape measure to measue each angle of the outline, thats if you want the picture the exact same size. Most of the time you will want to draw a bigger version of the car. I just use my eye’s intead of a tape measure. This part as with others there will be lots of looking back and forth at the picture and erasing some of the drawing to fix the curves, straight lines or angles to better the drawing.

The third step is to draw the windows, lights and other inner detail and lines about where you think these details should go the best you can, and again there will be lots of looking at the picture and erasing and fixing the detail in the drawing to try to make the picture closely resembe the car picture.

The forth step is adding the shading and light spots about where you thinke they should go either near some parts you drew before or through them on the picture you are drawing of the car. Again as in the other steps there will be erasing and redrawing to make the drawing look better.

The drawing not complete. After the drawing is done, i usually check the picture and the drawing for a last once over to adjust some things if needed and most of the time it is.

In order to become good at drawing. Practice is the key to be able to create some good art.

Car audio market, "China" the lack of voice

Now, almost all of the internationally renowned car audio brands in China have set up manufacturing enterprises or representative offices. The world’s large car audio makers are also targeting the Chinese market. Famous foreign car audio companies have Bacheng invest and build factories in China, the world’s Liu Cheng’s car audio products from China. In this area, foreign brands have been competing to seize high ground, which the Japanese brands accounted for 50% of China’s car audio market share of more than. Most Japanese companies, including Pioneer, Panasonic, Sony, Alpine Electronics, Clarion Electronics, JVC and Kenwood have set up factories in China or semi spare parts assembly plant. European and American companies such as Philips, Siemens, VDO, sniper, Hamann, although leading products and Japanese enterprises are different, but also in China car audio market has occupied 40% market share. Left to our own brand companies with less than 10% market share. Now the Chinese own-brand car stereo main include: Air Sheng Electronics, fly rhyme, ultra sound, Rui Sheng, Bo map. after loading the market is competitive

Relevant Mainland authorities on the survey data show that in all of the sound been modified car users, 63.33% of consumers choose a car stereo is Sony, Panasonic, Kenwood, Pioneer and other foreign brands. Of these, 36% of consumers choose the Sony brand is Panasonic’s second, about 12% market share, Siemens, VDO, Kenwood, Pioneer and other brands of 6% to 7% of market share. In the top ten brands, local brands only 7.8% market share.

In China, now the factory for matching automotive OEM market, the most stable site. China’s car audio OEM market concentration is high, due to the various car manufacturers usually choose the brand supporting fixed, the other brand is difficult to grab share from the other bowl. Currently, Siemens, VDO, Philips, several major manufacturers in the automotive original equipment market, our share of over 75%.

Rene Padron lists the 10 best luxury sports cars of 2010

  1. Mercedes Benz SL – This model, as compared to all-out sports cars, is more refined and heavy. The car’s luxury and performance quotient are quite high. There are two models of the SL series–the SL550 with 382 horsepower and SL600 with 510 horsepower engines.
  2. Porsche 911 Carrera – This car balances luxury, power and agility with impressive class which a true sports car enthusiast can hardly resist. The model has a new double clutch gearbox. Main features of the car include its powerful engine and superb handling, three attractive body styles (includes a convertible style) and interiors focused on the driver. The front seats are quite supportive; however, the backseats are a little cramped and the on-board storage is also quite limited.
  3. Lotus Exige Cup 260 – The car is made from lightweight components like carbon fiber body to lose the mass and increase the performance. The vehicle is fitted with a 257 horsepower engine with 1.8 liter fuel capacity. The car weighs 890 kilos.
  4. Nissan G.T.-R – The “Gran Turismo-Racer” model of Nissan is a combination of functional design, the raging performance of a sports-car and first rate interiors. The car has a 485 horsepower powerful twin-turbo V6 engine and safety features like AVDC (Advanced Vehicle Dynamic Control), roof mounted curtain and side-impact supplemental air bags.
  5. Jaguar XK – This latest model of luxury sports car has an aggressive design combined with excellent performance. Though not as sporty as its competitors, the Jaguar XK provides a composed handling, smooth power-train and comfortable front seats. Safety features include sat mounted side airbags and dual-stage chest airbags at the front.
  6. Lamborghini Murcielago – This model is more powerful, faster and lighter than ever before. The vehicle is equipped with a 670 horsepower V12 engine with 6.5 liters capacity.  The body of the vehicle has a lightweight construction and is aerodynamically designed.
  7. Mercedes Benz CL – The models of cars available in CL series are CL550, CL600, CL63 AMG and CL65AMG. The CL600 model has a 510 hp V12 engine. All models have outstanding handling dynamics with classy design, fit and finish both exterior and interior. The unique feature of the Mercedes Benz CL is the COMAND multi-media interface.
  8. Dodge Viper SR710 – Some of the features include true sports handling dynamics and its new club racer trim that is track-tuned. The car is equipped with a 600 hp V10 engine with 8.4 liter capacity and can be launched from 0 to 60 miles per hour speed in just four seconds.
  9. BMW 6 Series – Though not an all-out sports car, the BMW 6-series is a status symbol for both beauty and luxury. Available in coupe and convertible models, the vehicle has 360 hp V8 engine, superior fit and finish on the inside and an elegant and high-class design on the exterior. The car is more a cruiser than a sports car.
  10. Lexus SC – The SC series of Lexus cars have a power-retractable convertible hardtop and impressive built quality. Safety features include airbags for front passengers at the front, side and knee.

Rene Padron

Buy Car Spare Parts Online From Home

If you have a car then buying car spare parts is an activity that you must be familiar with.  Nowadays, as the world is becoming more and more internet savvy and a lot of dealers have jumped into online car spare parts selling business. Buying car parts for different cars like Vauxhall spares, Mercedes spares and BMW spares etc has become really easy as these online stores offer customers an opportunity to buy these spare parts from the relative comfort of their home. If you want to start shopping for these spare parts online, then all you need is an internet connection and a credit card or a pay pal account and once you have them you are ready to go.

Online site like 247spares, dealing in car spare parts might still be a new concept for some people but it has become hugely popular in a very short span of time. The main reason behind the growing popularity apart from the convenience that they provide is the fact that these stores allow you to buy spare parts for expensive cars like Mercedes, Audi and Vauxhall spares at some of the best prices you will find. Whereas if you buy these spare parts from your local dealer then you might end up paying a huge amount which in some cases might put a huge burden on your budget. The reason these sites provide such great prices on spare parts is the huge competition that they face from hundred of other sites dealing in the same business, therefore they always try to stay ahead of their competitors in terms of prices as well as different discount that they offer.

Further, when you shop around for expensive car spare parts you need to ensure that the parts you are buying are original and of highest quality, as a defected piece may end up having a negative effect on the performance of your car. This is where you can trust these online stores to provide you with quality original parts, as all the spares that these sites sell come with guarantee and generally in case of any defect these stores provide you with exchange deals. With the help of online dealers you can save yourself the exhausting experience of looking from one store to the other, for spare parts of your car, as everything here is available to you at a click of your mouse.

Before you go around shopping online for car spare parts, you must do a thorough research and browse the net to find the best online site that has a good reputation for selling quality products at the best prices. Taking a look at the customer reviews is also very helpful.

Choose Volkswagen Wheels & Rims For Your Vehicle

Volkswagen is German automobile company. Over the decades, this brand has provided excellent technique in cars. With power packed performance and supreme technology, Volkswagen has managed to create a brand value of its own. There are three cars namely Volkswagen Golf, Volswagen Passat and VolkswagenBeetle from Volkswagen in best seller list of all times. Besides this, Volkswagen has supreme quality car accessories too.$T2eC16R,!zQE9s3ssO25BSEmHByfzg~~60_1.JPG?set_id=880000500F

If you are planning to upgrade your car with by using best qualities, choose Volkswagen Wheels and Volkswagen Rims. There are many dealers across the world who can advise you the best to choose wheels and rims for your car and make it exclusive and perfect. Volkswagen Wheels have a wide range of sizes, patterns and designs.

The Volkswagen Wheels sizes comes from 17 inches to 22 inches and the design are made with proper finishing. The designs and the pattern are designed by the expert with the latest technology, the minor techniques have taken care. There are many types of Volkswagen Rims are being used to give the best performance such as – Avant Grade M310 Wheels Hyper Silver, Foregster, Audi, S5 Style Wheel, Miro Wheel Type and many more.

There are a vast number of companies available in the market, who serve the best qualities in rims and wheel. But Volkswagen Rims and Volkswagen Wheels are one of the best to choose for your car, it will make car performance better and gives a stylish look. The range is  not also much expensive , in a less price there are a number of varieties with a high quality and better performance.

There are many other products to choose which can be quite expensive but once it has been chosen it is worth to spend money. There are many websites which offer this opportunity to select the best quality of wheels and rims for the expensive car and sometimes there are heavy discounts which can make your day while purchasing best thing at less price. On the website you will have all the details which will surely brief you about the Volkswagen Rims and Volkswagen Wheel.

Once you will pay a little more and get the best accessory for your royal and lavish car,  your would certainly be sure about performance of the car. The Volkswagen Rims and Volkswagen Rims are unbreakable, durable, reliable and long lasting. It is imperative to use good quality of wheels and rims to have hassle free driving.

If you have planned to buy Volkswagen Rims and Volkswagen Wheels online there are few things which has to be taken care, always have contact number of your  dealer and select those websites which are trustworthy, once everything is clear then you can go of the wheel and rims and select best for your car.

The Volkswagen Rims and Volkswagen Wheels are safe and they have sound break system along with this there is another option of an anti lock system which make your car safer.

Muscle VS Tuner Cars

Many say that Muscle and Tuner cars are just two the same car. But there is also a big number saying that they are not, and one is better than the other. This is an argument that even until now, car enthusiasts are battling out. There are forums that were not ended yet because all participants have their points, favoring their personal choice of car type. And both car types continue to developed themselves, making it look like comparison being made set out a competition between them. That is why I think, it will take forever before we all find out which one will conquer the streets and racing competitions. of all, the reason why Tuner and Muscle cars are being compared is that both cars are modified for better performance. By definition, muscle cars are especially made as spacious, durable, unsophisticated and powerful. These characteristics by muscle cars are what made them a bigger and heavier car. Tuner on the other hand is car of comfort, practicality and high gas mileage accompanied by performance modifications. They are typically good-handling vehicles. They’ve got light weight and worldly-wise suspensions.

Muscle cars’ specialty is drag racing while tuners are meant for drifting competition. But since they are both searching for car supremacy, both crossed the borders beyond their expertise. Tuners are now trying it in drag racing while muscle cars are giving it a shot on twisty tracks and thrilling drifting competitions.

Often times, it is the weight that most car enthusiasts are bragging about. For this part, it seems that tuners win it. Since they are exact, light and efficient, they are more capable of performing better as compared to muscle cars. Its low-cost tuning equipment triggered to more sales and high performance in comparison to dedicated sports cars. Other than their light weight, they are also easy to handle. But on the negative side, tuners are short in light of the massive torque and power that the bigger V-8s produce. This is where the edge of muscle car comes in. Muscle car always come with an engine that has powerful linear torque and horsepower curves. This characteristics made them better in acceleration and top speed. This leaves tuners behind because of its small engines and sharper torque curves, poorer when installed with a turbo-charger.

But it seems that the real standard for a good cars is its weight and handling. This is maybe the reason why modern muscle cars are now taking advantage of modern suspension working on better handling and avail computers which makes it more complex. This despite of the fact that there are muscle cars like rear-drive sedans that can have massive amounts of power.

For now, the debate is still up. We still can’t tell which one is better because both car types are developing their own. But to sum it all up, this battle between muscle and tuner cars benefits us the most.

A Brief History of Car audio

The car audio system has been influenced by so much in the last hundred years. As technology has altered, changed and reformed itself, the car audio system has transformed with it

The first influence upon the car audio system was the radio. Invented in the early 1900’s (around the same time cars became popular) it however didn’t gain commercial status until the 1920’s when the first commercial boomed occurred.  In 1922, a historic date for the car audio system, George Frost was the first person known to experiment with car radio with his own Ford car. Then in 1925, the first official listing of a car radio occurred, which was followed in 1927 with the first mass produced car radio, the Transitone TH-1.

In 1930, two famous American manufacturer brothers, Paul and Joseph Galvin manufactured the 5T71, which was to be under the brand name of ‘Motorola’. Across the globe, Germany’s Blaupunkt fitted their first commercial car radio in 1932 and Crossley’s of the UK started fitting them from 1933 onwards.

Up until till the 1950’s AM was the common car radio. In 1952, it was Blaupunkt that introduced the first FM car radio. Fm listening was not fully popular or available till at least a decade later. The 1950’s was a time of great change for the car audio system, as the seek button was introduced – a button which is still available on car audio systems today.

The 1960’s saw tape players arrive on the car audio scene. Reel to reel tape players were the first arrival, however, their bulkiness made sure that they were not to become popular. In 1964, Phillips invented the compact cassette and Lear invented the 8 track cartridge in competition with this.  The 8 track tape made its way into the Fords’ 1965 cars, but it would not be until 1970 that the compact cassette nudged its way into the car.

The 1970’s and 80’s saw FM radio stations become exceedingly popular, however, AM radio responded by offering more talks shows and sport channels for its listeners.  Car radio had finally expanded, giving its listeners more freedom of choice. In 1982 – a momentous moment occurred – the Compact disc or CD was invented Sony and Phillips, which was to be added in car audio systems in 1984 for the first time.  Subsequently to this, CD changers appeared in car audio systems.

The years after this, saw CD’s replace the cassette, the DVD and Mp3 being introduced to the car audio market. In the last few years, we have also utilized Bluetooth technology to connect our mobile phones (smart phones) to our car audio system, making it not only useful for entertainment but for practical reasons too.

Greatest Sports Cars Under 10000

Here are a couple of favorites that still pose reasonable competition for today’s models. You could even find a favorite that you will be able to afford.

Greatest Sports Cars Under 10000: Honda S2000

As one of the speediest sports cars under 10000, the Honda S2000 is not difficult to find. It will not take long to get the 9k redline in this vehicle. It will deliver a very unique road experience. The car was of course built for serious driving: it comes only in a 6 speed manual. You will need this for handling tight corners at high speeds.

Even today, the chassis on this vehicle still holds up. If oyu are interested in upgrading the vehicle or want to give it a more up-to-date look, then there is a big aftermarket choice for the S200. Along with this, it is cheaper for you to fix than other cars.

Greatest Sports Cars Under 10000: Porsche Boxer

While not as impressive as a Porsche 911, the Porsche Boxer manages to be one of the biggest iconic sports cars under 10000. The speed of the Boxer will not blow drivers away as with the Honda S2000, but this is made up for when it comes to the handling. The German engineering of the Boxer will mean that this vehicle is built with to a high standard, and therefore will last al ong time. Drivers can get a good head turning Porsche for under 10000, and this makes the car a steal.

Greatest Sports Cars Under 10000: Mazda Miata

Many who use the Mazda Miata will state that this is a fun car to drive. With a quick four cylinder engine that gives the driver a desirable speed, there is also good gas mileage. This vehicle is not all about speed, as it has brilliant handling. The interior might not be as slick as other under 10000 sports cars, although the layout is quite simple and therefore allows for ergonomic driving.

Greatest Sports Cars Under 10000: Nissan 300ZX

One of the older types of sports cars, but it is still thought of as a favorite for a lot of sports car enthusiasts. It has a twin turbo engine that will bring out 0-60 in roughly five seconds. The handling that the drivers gets with the power provided is still quite impressive. The Nissan 300ZX’s interior is built with a lot of quality than many cars during its day. It should therefore hold up a lot better than other cars from the same period.

Car Rim Sizes And Wheel Materials

Car rims have been on the market for some time now but their popularity continues to increase. Through movements such as hip hop culture, as well as their appearance in mainstream music videos and Hollywood movies custom wheels have definitely taken a spotlight in terms off “the” car accessory of choice for when you want to make your car stand out and claim king on the streets. like other car accessories when it comes to picking out car rims you’ll have a wide array of options to look at including wheel materials and rim sizes.

Car rim sizes are not to be overlooked as not all sizes and models will fit properly with your car and current tire size. Before you even get into shopping for your wheels you need to either go visit a mechanic or take your car into a specialist to find out exactly what size and style will be able to work with your model of car as well as what would suit your driving patterns and goals.

Wheels sizes for compact vehicles will be about 13inches and that number will just continue to grow for larger cars like SUVs where 24 or 25 inch wheels will be a bit more commonplace.

Another term you’ll start to hear about as you look into getting the right size rims for your car or truck is “Plus Sizing”. This just refers to when the rims are actually getting bigger in relation to the current tire size. It can provide and amazing look and now even major automobile companies can be found offering plus sizing on their stock vehicles. Plus sizing not only gives your wheels a bigger visual impact but it can help you out when it comes to handling and control of your car.

So what about rim materials? There are also different materials to choose from when it comes to materials. Not only will different materials demand higher or lower prices but they will also affect car performance.

Chrome and Alloy wheels are probably the most popular materials being used to make car rims on the market at the moment. Alloy is the material that most are made of when you buy them at the dealership. They are light, fairly easy to keep clean, and aren’t usually too expensive. They are a good all around rim for doing your daily driving and getting around with ease.

Then you have the heavier and flashier chrome rims. Many specialized wheels are made out of chrome because of the beautiful shine and luster they give off. Chrome will really help your vehicle stand out. If you are thinking about buying custom chrome rims you will need to think about price because a nice set of chromes will cost you a pretty penny.

1969 Pontiac GTO Judge Convertible Brings $220,000 at St. Charles Muscle Car Auction

Over 900 classic and collector cars were up for auction recently at the Mecum Fall Premier Collector Car Auction.  From Mopars to Cobras, there was something up for auction for every muscle car enthusiast.  The auction’s television show, Mecum Auto Auctions Muscle Cars and More, was broadcasted LIVE on Discovery Communication’s HD Theatre channel on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday during the event at Pheasant Run Resort in St. Charles, Illinois.

Over 50 vehicles from the personal collections of Walt Hollifield, David and Pauline Haas, and Zeb Morris were sold at no reserve as well as several hundred articles of memorabilia on Sunday morning.  The auction, held inside the Megacenter at Pheasant Run Resort, provided an excellent venue for bidding on cars.

The main attraction of the event Lot S245 1969 Pontiac GTO Judge Convertible was the star of the show, bringing a hammer price of $220,000 (not including buyer’s premium) around 8pm on Friday, September 17, 2010.

In 1969, Pontiac produced just 108 GTO Judge Convertibles and only one triple black GTO Judge Convertible (documented by the Pontiac Historical Society).

Powered by its original Pontiac 400/366 HP Ram Air III V-8,  this fully documented 4-Speed GTO Judge Convertible was restored using 90% NOS parts and has been driven zero miles since its frame-off resoration. The optional equipment on the car includes a wood rim steering wheel, rallye gauges, hood tach, hideaway headlights, 8-track player, and Redline tires.  This is, without any doubt, a one of a kind muscle car.

Car Audio Video Expo and the Guangzhou Exhibition on the 20th opening – audio show, video, expo – HC

Media Expo and the Guangzhou

Car Audio

Exhibition opens today

World-class Audiophile Guangzhou Yan Dou

20 -22 days this month, the Guangzhou Expo and car audio video equipment exhibition will be held at the Orient Hotel.

Learned, video equipment exhibition in Guangzhou (formerly Garden Hotel audio show) has been successfully held the ninth, as the sound of many foreign firms have played an active role in the promotion, the focus of this exhibition is to introduce a comprehensive world-class audio-visual products and car audio, in order to bring vast business opportunities for exhibitors. Audiophile industry experienced experts renovascular only said that to meet the needs of Asian markets, in addition to wheat in cloud letters, Rowling, the world hegemony, Tanner and so many other brands still stick to high-end, many brands have made their way HIFI


Of, the original production of 100 000 mainly about high-priced audio brands, such as B & W, Jin Long, Ya-Chun and so on, gradually began production in China million class sound. Furthermore, close to the local market and cost advantages, some foreign HIFI manufacturers choose to set up factories in China. Therefore, the audio-visual exhibition curator Tan Xiaofan revealed in this exhibition will be launched new domestic and international brands HIFI products manufacturer, from million-level stereo audio systems ranging to several hundred thousand dollars.

In addition, this exhibition will also be special car audio booth, Panasonic, Alpine car audio, led by giant will send a fleet of luxury lineup presentation of its latest model of car audio. Reporter Xie Xiaoting

Exhibits show in advance


Quad -40 mono power


States Quad -40 mono power amplifier is based on Quad formed to develop the blueprint, the use of vacuum tube diode 6SH7 2, 5, and the British GEC developed electron beam-type two KT88 output tubes. In addition to the power part, the original Quad power amplifier circuit using two 5-pole tube EF86 form of combined deformation of the cathode phase reverse and drive elements, and also developed by GEC-type electron beam tube KT66 push-pull output The composition of output stage circuit. The circuit structure in the Quad -40 mono power amplifier are retained, but the original KT66 output tubes were replaced by the current more KT88. So with the Quad output power of 15 watts compared, Quad -40 substantially increase the output power of 40 watts. On the other hand, Quad QC-24 pre-amplifier circuit was designed with more new content, but two did not change: still using a very reliable and the use of simple 6111WA dual triode signal circuits.


Pasadena S600HT

Home Theater

Swans Pasadena S600HT home theater system consists of six devices, comprising the front main channel speaker S600F, front center channel and rear surround sound speaker speaker S600C S600R were composed of five full theater speaker audio system, with special TV Cabinets CBS600, optional for the S600-ST surround sound speaker stands. Swans Pasadena S600HT home theater system using the Swans in the world’s first circular belt treble R1L and integration in the aluminum-magnesium alloy diaphragm M5N bass, with a 10-inch wing bass, voice clear as water, low-frequency dynamic sharp, Swans Pasadena S600HT home theater system is the Swans in 2004 developed a set of the latest fashion-quality home theater system.

[Lok Lam]

Model 201 mono power amplifier

Following the 2003 launch of the 300 series after Lok Lam made a very good reputation, in 2004, Le Lin continue to introduce its new 200 series as the factory’s main product. The Model 201 single-channel power amplifier, the 300 series is modeled on the line as developed in a top-level


It’s body dug from the top cars made of solid aluminum, to ensure minimum levels of body resonance, but also have excellent shielding properties. Model 201 voice in pursuit of a high analytical, transparent, strong, fine voice, his body despite its small size but there is a strong driving force!

Difference Between Rent-to-Own and Rim Financing

Difference Between Rent-to-Own and Rim Financing

Are you having problems with your rims? Have you ever thought about replacing your wheels? Do you want to buy new wheels? Are you short of money? If your answer to these questions is in the affirmative, you might want to consider your rim acquisition options. There are two options available to you, namely, rent-to-own rims and rim financing. A lot of people use these terms interchangeably but these two are different from each other. First, it is important to know what rims are.

People who do not own cars might ask, what are rims in the first place? Well, a rim is a vital part of the car. It is the metal cylinder found in the outer part of the wheel to which your car is attached. Rims give car tires shape and support. They are also known to be useful in improving the car’s traction capabilities as well as its steering. For car enthusiasts, rims help make their car look good. To wit, it improves the car’s appearance and performance.

Rims can really be costly depending on your car—one of the reasons why some people think twice in having rims or replacing their wheels. People need rims. A car cannot be a car without them. It is inevitable to purchase or replace wheels primarily when they have been damaged by accidents or other similar circumstances. Because of its undeniable importance, people are asking, what is the alternative? You can either rent-to-own your rims or choose rim financing.

Rent-to-own rims only require a few documents and a very low down payment. Some rent-to-own rim companies only require $20 down payment. You also get to pay the minimum amount per month and most importantly, no interest rate is imposed. Rim styles are not limited either. There are a lot of car online companies offering rent-to-own rims which covers various wheel collection. You can choose any wheel you like and rent it. You can also choose to rent both rims and tires as well. With this additional feature, you get to have the perfect matching wheel and a two-in-one deal. The only downside is, you just simply rent your wheels, and you do not own it no matter how long you have been paying for it.

Similarly, rim financing also only require minimal paper works and requirements. You just need to present proof of employment, ownership of the vehicle, and citizenship. Also, your credit history is not a factor. There are financing companies out there which offer their service to bad credit holders. If you have a not so good credit standing, you need not worry. Your rim financing application can be approved instantly despite this. Like rent-to-own companies, financing companies offer you rim and tire packages. These rim and tire package deals offer you quality wheels in affordable prices. Unlike rent-to-own rims, rim financing allows car owners to own the wheels they need. This is the main difference between these two alternatives—you own our rims and not merely rent it.

Given these circumstances, it is better to choose rim financing because you get to own your rims while paying less and getting the best quality wheels for your car.

How Musch Does It Cost To Restore A Muscle Car

This depends on a lot of issues, most of which we can’t determine without tearing your car apart, at this point we have already begun the work on your car, the cost to restore your car is a subjective thing, we have no idea what it will take to restore a car until we look in to it. the car from an area that makes it rust heavily, if so what damage has rust caused to the car, do we need to replace most of the metal parts of the car, such as the floorboards, trunk floors, rocker panels, and inner wheel wells, well you get the idea.

Does it have excessive body damage, electrical damage, interior damage, or mechanical damage, all of these things weigh in to the cost of getting your car restored, most reputable shops will have a shop labor rate that is high, if you locate a $25.00 per hour shop beware of what might happen to your car.

You might think that this sounds unfair, but your paying for their knowledge, not for their time, most reputable shops have owners that have spent a lot of time learning how to restore cars, and they should get paid for their knowledge of your car.

This is not collision repair, it’s nothing like it, we have no book to go off of to estimate the cost to restore your car, we have our knowledge of of your car, and the restoration of it, people often ask me if they can restore a car for less then it would cost to buy a fully restored one, the answer is no.

It will always cast more to restore a car then the blue book value of the car, so restoring them to resell, and make money off of is not the answer, you need to restore the car because it holds nostalgia for your, it brings back memories of the good old days.

There are just way to many factors to look at, factors that require us to begin work on the car to know what’s going on with it, a car can have a lot of hidden surprises, things that you’ll never see from just an outer inspection of the car, we need to get deeper then that to know about that car.

I know that to you this sounds like an excuse to get started on your car, but there really is no way for a restoration shop to know what’s in store in the restoration of any car, it is 100% impossible to estimate the cost of restoring your car.

An average restoration can, and will take a lot of time to complete, even if the car is in excellent condition, it will take at least 1,000 hours to complete the restoration of your car, so let’s take my shop for example, the shop labor rate is $75.00 PHR, this means at least $75,000 in just labor.

It does not include parts, or supplies, it does not include any custom work that you want done, nor does it include any high performance work that you want done, this just gives you an idea of why a shop would say that they don’t estimate restoration work on any car.

If you want the car restored faster, all the shop can do is to put another tech on your job, and most shops won’t do that for free, they’ll charge shop labor rate for each employee that works on your car, so you should also keep this in mind when you want to push the speed.

This is not the first article that I have written on this, and I’m sure it won’t be the last, I seem to keep getting the same questions, a professional restoration shop is not in business to rip you off, they are only charging what it costs them to do the work.

Choose the Best in Car Audio Implementation

You’ve got a ride for a reason. It’s not only to get from point “A” to point “B”. Any vehicle could do that! But you want to get there in a comfortable, stylish way. You want to listen to the music that you want to listen to. Stop by the places you want to go. But if the sound system in your ride isn’t what it should be, for goodness sake, why don’t you do something about it? You know how much life you get? This much: ” – “. You know what that is? The dash on your tombstone. You Lived 00 – 00, AD; may you rest in peace. There’s not a lot of time in ” – “, is there? So why are you wasting it with a sub-par sound system! Get an audio system implemented that does the trick.

But you’ve got to be sure that the right individuals are consulted for the job. You’re looking for experts in custom design, sale and integration, because your vehicle has an individuality about it which is specifically facilitated by you over time. You want that audio system to fit perfectly–that little dash representing your life doesn’t have a great variety of longevity to it! You mustn’t waste time with a system that’s sub-par. For car stereo installation in Sydney, you want the best of the best. Car systems with sound proofing options, subwoofers, smart phone integration–you should expect all these things! Digital TV, Digital Car Radio–what about DVD with headrest and roof screens? Add onto that GPS Navigation and car alarm systems that include monitoring options. These are all things you should expect from cogent car stereo installation experts in Sydney. Also, you should expect these things from the finest brands in the industry. Brands like Alpine, or Clarion; Pioneer, or Morel. Arc Audio, or Gladen. Mosconi, Image Dynamics, and a collection of others.


Audio installation experts usually install more than just audio systems. If you haven’t yet come to that conclusion from the cavalcade of additional services mentioned in this write-up, now you know it entirely. See, it’s about the driving experience. As has been mentioned, life is short; so when you’re stuck in a car for hours on end, you really ought to make the best of it. You and any passengers you might have. There’s no reason not to!

Look for an installation shop operated by skilled professionals. Folks that have been at the audio enhancement game since at least the 80s. Up-front advice should come accompanied with old-school, cogent, personable customer services. And that’s a trend you’re looking for in regard to any job; whether it be high-end GPS installation or a DVD player in the dash. Years of training ought to be combined with new technology for a comprehensive, satisfying, worthwhile experience.

Not enough can be said about the proper installation and tuning of car audio and mobile electronics; so be sure and find an expert that will cogently service you. Finally, quotes should be free. There really isn’t any reason to have a non-free quote! Except incompetence. You can expect an incompetent service to know their failings and try to force individuals into spending money anyway. But competent installation experts will be harried by no such ridiculousness, and can give you the straight truth immediately.


One of the best services for car stereo installation in Sydney is Auto Acoustics. Certainly, they specialise in more than simply car stereo installation in Sydney! Audio-visual installations, Digital TV, Digital Car Radio and more can be had at reasonable rates from seasoned professionals at Auto Acoustics.